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Education and Family Background: Mechanisms and Policies

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  • Björklund, Anders

    ()
    (SOFI, Stockholm University)

  • Salvanes, Kjell G.

    ()
    (Norwegian School of Economics)

Abstract

In every society for which we have data, people’s educational achievement is positively correlated with their parents’ education or with other indicators of their parents’ socioeconomic status. This topic is central in social science, and there is no doubt that research has intensified during recent decades, not least thanks to better data having become accessible to researchers. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize and evaluate recent empirical research on education and family background. Broadly speaking, we focus on two related but distinct motivations for this topic. The first is equality of opportunity. Here, major the research issues are: How important a determinant of educational attainment is family background, and is family background – in the broad sense that incorporates factors not chosen by the individual – a major, or only a minor, determinant of educational attainment? What are the mechanisms that make family background important? Have specific policy reforms been successful in reducing the impact of family background on educational achievement? The second common starting point for recent research has been the child development perspective. Here, the focus is on how human-capital accumulation is affected by early childhood resources. Studies with this focus address the questions: what types of parental resources or inputs are important for children's development, why are they important and when are they important? In addition, this literature focuses on exploring which types of economic policy, and what timing of the policy in relation to children's social and cognitive development, are conducive to children's performance and adult outcomes. The policy interest in this research is whether policies that change parents' resources and restrictions have causal effects on their children.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 5002.

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Length: 83 pages
Date of creation: Jun 2010
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Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5002

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Keywords: intergenerational mobility; sibling correlations; education; education reform;

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References

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  1. Tom Hertz & Tamara Jayasundera & Patrizio Piraino & Sibel Selcuk & Nicole Smith & Alina Verashchagina, 2007. "The Inheritance of Educational Inequality: International Comparisons and Fifty-Year Trends," Working Papers, American University, Department of Economics 2007-013, American University, Department of Economics.
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  3. Caroline Hoxby, 2000. "Peer Effects in the Classroom: Learning from Gender and Race Variation," NBER Working Papers 7867, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  6. Plug, Erik & Vijverberg, Wim, 2000. "Schooling, Family Background, and Adoption: Is It Nature of Is It Nurture?," Discussion Papers, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy 736, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
  7. Miller, Paul W & Mulvey, Charles & Martin, Nick, 1995. "What Do Twins Studies Reveal about the Economic Returns to Education? A Comparison of Australian and U.S. Findings," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 586-99, June.
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  13. Pekkarinen, Tuomas & Uusitalo, Roope & Kerr, Sari, 2009. "School tracking and intergenerational income mobility: Evidence from the Finnish comprehensive school reform," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 93(7-8), pages 965-973, August.
  14. Diego Restuccia & Carlos Urrutia, 2002. "Intergenerational Persistence of Earnings: The Role of Early and College Education," Working Papers diegor-02-03, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
  15. Fabrice Murtin & Martina Viarengo, 2011. "The Expansion and Convergence of Compulsory Schooling in Western Europe, 1950–2000," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 78(311), pages 501-522, 07.
  16. Raaum, Oddbjørn & Salvanes, Kjell G. & Sørensen, Erik Ø., 2003. "The Neighbourhood Is Not What It Used to Be," IZA Discussion Papers 952, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  17. Gary Solon & Marianne E. Page & Greg J. Duncan, 2000. "Correlations Between Neighboring Children In Their Subsequent Educational Attainment," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(3), pages 383-392, August.
  18. Eric Maurin & Sandra McNally, 2008. "Vive la Révolution! Long-Term Educational Returns of 1968 to the Angry Students," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26, pages 1-33.
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  21. Torbjørn Hægeland & Lars Johannessen Kirkebøen & Oddbjørn Raaum & Kjell G. Salvanes, 2010. "Why children of college graduates outperform their schoolmates. A study of cousins and adoptees," Discussion Papers, Research Department of Statistics Norway 628, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Maria Zumbuehl & Thomas Dohmen & Gerard Pfann, 2013. "Parental Investment and the Intergenerational Transmission of Economic Preferences and Attitudes," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 570, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  2. Hideo Akabayashi & Ryuichi Tanaka, 2013. "Long-Term Effects of Preschooling on Educational Attainments," Keio/Kyoto Joint Global COE Discussion Paper Series, Keio/Kyoto Joint Global COE Program 2012-033, Keio/Kyoto Joint Global COE Program.
  3. Caroleo, Floro Ernesto & Pastore, Francesco, 2011. "Talking about the Pigou Paradox: Socio-Educational Background and Educational Outcomes of AlmaLaurea," IZA Discussion Papers 6021, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Venke Furre Haaland & Mari Rege & Kjetil Telle & Mark Votruba, 2014. "The intergenerational transfer of the employment gender gap," Discussion Papers, Research Department of Statistics Norway 767, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
  5. Arnaud Chevalier & Colm Harmon & Vincent O'Sullivan & Ian Walker, 2011. "The Impact of Parental Earnings and Education on the Schooling of Children," Working Papers, Geary Institute, University College Dublin 201112, Geary Institute, University College Dublin.
  6. Hanushek, Eric A. & Woessmann, Ludger, 2010. "The Economics of International Differences in Educational Achievement," IZA Discussion Papers 4925, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Regula Geel & Uschi Backes-Gellner, 2011. "Career Entry and Success After Tertiary Vocational Education," Economics of Education Working Paper Series, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU) 0052, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU).
  8. Nathalie Picard & François Charles Wolff, 2013. "Les inégalités intra-familiales d'éducation en France," Working Papers halshs-00853375, HAL.
  9. Björklund, Anders & Jäntti, Markus, 2012. "How important is family background for labor-economic outcomes?," Labour Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 465-474.
  10. Huang, Jin, 2013. "Intergenerational transmission of educational attainment: The role of household assets," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 112-123.
  11. Antoni, Manfred, 2011. "Lifelong learning inequality? The relevance of family background for on-the-job training," IAB Discussion Paper 201109, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
  12. Marc Piopiunik, 2011. "Intergenerational Transmission of Education and Mediating Channels: Evidence from Compulsory Schooling Reforms in Germany," Ifo Working Paper Series Ifo Working Paper No. 107, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
  13. Lundborg, Petter & Nordin, Martin & Rooth, Dan-Olof, 2011. "The Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital: Exploring the Role of Skills and Health Using Data on Adoptees and Twins," IZA Discussion Papers 6099, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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