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Gender Gaps across the Earnings Distribution in Britain: Are Women Bossy Enough?

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  • Chzhen, Yekaterina

    ()
    (University of Oxford)

  • Mumford, Karen A.

    ()
    (University of York)

Abstract

This paper investigates gender differences between the log wage distributions of full-time British employees in the public and private sectors. After allowing for positive selection into full-time employment by women, we find significant and substantial gender earnings gaps, and evidence of glass ceilings, in both sectors. The earnings gaps amongst the higher income earners are found to be related to there being a scarcity of senior women in high skilled, white-collar occupations, especially in the public sector.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 4331.

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Length: 32 pages
Date of creation: Jul 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4331

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Keywords: distribution; selection; wage-gap; earnings; gender;

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References

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  1. Simon Burgess & Marisa Ratto, 2003. "The Role of Incentives in the Public Sector: Issues and Evidence," The Centre for Market and Public Organisation 03/071, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
  2. Wiji Arulampalam & Alison Booth & Mark L. Bryan, 2006. "Is There a Glass Ceiling over Europe? Exploring the Gender Pay Gap across the Wages Distribution," CEPR Discussion Papers 510, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
  3. Llorens, Vanessa & De la Rica Goiricelaya, Sara & Dolado, Juan J., 2004. "Ceilings and Floors? Gender Wage Gaps by Education in Spain," DFAEII Working Papers 2005-01, University of the Basque Country - Department of Foundations of Economic Analysis II.
  4. Albrecht, James & Björklund, Anders & Vroman, Susan, 2001. "Is There a Glass Ceiling in Sweden?," IZA Discussion Papers 282, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Chatterji, Monojit & Mumford, Karen A. & Smith, Peter N., 2007. "The Public-Private Sector Gender Wage Differential: Evidence from Matched Employee-Workplace Data," IZA Discussion Papers 3158, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2001. "Understanding International Differences in the Gender Pay Gap," NBER Working Papers 8200, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Gary S. Becker, 1962. "Investment in Human Capital: A Theoretical Analysis," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70, pages 9.
  8. Christian Pfeifer, 2011. "Risk Aversion and Sorting into Public Sector Employment," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 12(1), pages 85-99, 02.
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  11. James Albrecht & Aico van Vuuren & Susan Vroman, 2004. "Decomposing the Gender Wage Gap in the Netherlands with Sample Selection Adjustments," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 04-123/3, Tinbergen Institute.
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  14. Nicodemo, Catia, 2009. "Gender Pay Gap and Quantile Regression in European Families," IZA Discussion Papers 3978, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  15. Weichselbaumer, Doris & Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf, 2003. "A Meta-Analysis of the International Gender Wage Gap," CEPR Discussion Papers 4127, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  16. Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
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  18. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
  19. Mary Gregory & Sara Connolly, 2007. "Moving Down: Women`s Part-time Work and Occupational Change in Britain 1991-2001," Economics Series Working Papers 359, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  20. Simon Burgess & Marisa Ratto, 2003. "The Role of Incentives in the Public Sector: Issues and Evidence," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(2), pages 285-300, Summer.
  21. Altonji, Joseph G. & Blank, Rebecca M., 1999. "Race and gender in the labor market," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 48, pages 3143-3259 Elsevier.
  22. José Mata & José A. F. Machado, 2005. "Counterfactual decomposition of changes in wage distributions using quantile regression," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(4), pages 445-465.
  23. Ichimura, H., 1991. "Semiparametric Least Squares (sls) and Weighted SLS Estimation of Single- Index Models," Papers 264, Minnesota - Center for Economic Research.
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Cited by:
  1. Kampon ADIREKSOMBAT & FANG Zheng & Chris SAKELLARIOU, 2010. "The Evolution of Gender Wage Differentials and Discrimination in Thailand: 1991-2007 — An Application of Unconditional Quantile Regression," Economic Growth centre Working Paper Series 1005, Nanyang Technolgical University, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Economic Growth centre.
  2. Asplund, Rita, 2009. "Sources of Increased Wage Differentials in the Finnish Private Sector," Discussion Papers 1206, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
  3. Rita Asplund & Sami Napari, 2011. "Intangibles and the Gender Wage Gap: An Analysis of Gender Wage Gaps Across Occupations in the Finnish Private Sector," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 32(4), pages 305-325, December.
  4. Sara Connolly & Susan Long, 2011. "Equal Opportunities in Science? Evidence on Gender Pay Gaps amongst Scientists Working in the UK," University of East Anglia Applied and Financial Economics Working Paper Series 027, School of Economics, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK..
  5. Asplund, Rita & Lilja, Reija, 2010. "Wage formation and gender wage gaps: The changing role of human capital in the Finnish technology industry," Discussion Papers 1230, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
  6. Asplund, Rita & Napari, Sami, 2011. "Intangible capital and wages: An analysis of wage gaps across occupations and genders in Czech Republic, Finland and Norway," Discussion Papers 1248, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.

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