Gender Wage Gaps, 'Sticky Floors' and 'Glass Ceilings' in Europe
AbstractWe consider and attempt to understand the gender wage gap across 26 European countries, using 2007 data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. The size of the gender wage gap varies considerably across countries, definitions of the gap, and selection-correction mechanisms. Most of the gap cannot be explained by the characteristics available in this data set. Quantile regressions show that, in a number of countries, the wage gap is wider at the top (‘glass ceilings’) and/or at the bottom of the wage distribution (‘sticky floors’). We find larger mean/median gender gaps and more evidence of glass ceilings for full-time full-year employees, suggesting more female disadvantage in ‘better’ jobs. These features may be related to country-specific policies that cannot be evaluated at the individual-country level, at a point in time. We use the cross-country variation in the unexplained wage gaps of this larger-than-usual sample of states to explore the influence of (i) country policies that reconcile work and family life and (ii) their wage-setting institutions. We find that country policies and institutions are related to features of their unexplained gender wage gaps in systematic, quantitatively important, ways.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of Guelph, Department of Economics and Finance in its series Working Papers with number 1301.
Length: 43 pages
Date of creation: 2013
Date of revision:
Gender wage gap; selection; quantiles; work-family reconciliation; wage-setting institutions;
Other versions of this item:
- Christofides, Louis N. & Polycarpou, Alexandros & Vrachimis, Konstantinos, 2013. "Gender wage gaps, ‘sticky floors’ and ‘glass ceilings’ in Europe," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 86-102.
- Louis N. Christofides & Alexandros Polycarpou & Konstantinos Vrachimis, 2013. "Gender Wage Gaps, ‘Sticky Floors’ and ‘Glass Ceilings’ in Europe," University of Cyprus Working Papers in Economics 02-2013, University of Cyprus Department of Economics.
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
- J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
- J50 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor-Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining - - - General
- C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2013-02-16 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEM-2013-02-16 (Demographic Economics)
- NEP-LAB-2013-02-16 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-LMA-2013-02-16 (Labor Markets - Supply, Demand, & Wages)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Weichselbaumer, Doris & Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf, 2003.
"A Meta-Analysis of the International Gender Wage Gap,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
4127, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Doris Weichselbaumer & Rudolf Winter-Ebmer, 2005. "A Meta-Analysis of the International Gender Wage Gap," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(3), pages 479-511, 07.
- Weichselbaumer, Doris & Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf, 2003. "A Meta-Analysis of the International Gender Wage Gap," Economics Series 143, Institute for Advanced Studies.
- Doris Weichselbaumer & Rudolf Winter-Ebmer, 2003. "A meta-analysis of the international gender wage gap," Economics working papers 2003-11, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
- Weichselbaumer, Doris & Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf, 2003. "A Meta-Analysis of the International Gender Wage Gap," IZA Discussion Papers 906, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Nicodemo, Catia, 2009. "Gender Pay Gap and Quantile Regression in European Families," IZA Discussion Papers 3978, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Du Caju, Philip & Gautier, Erwan & Momferatou, Daphne & Ward-Warmedinger, Melanie E., 2008.
"Institutional Features of Wage Bargaining in 23 European Countries, the US and Japan,"
IZA Discussion Papers
3867, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Philip Du Caju & Erwan Gautier & Daphne Momferatu & Melanie Ward-Warmedinger, 2009. "Institutional Features of Wage Bargaining in 23 European Countries, the US and Japan," Ekonomia, Cyprus Economic Society and University of Cyprus, vol. 12(2), pages 57-108, Winter.
- Philip Ducaju & Erwan Gautier & Daphné Momferatou & Mélanie Ward-Warmedinge, 2008. "Institutional features of wage bargaining in 23 European countries, the US and Japan," Working Paper Research 154, National Bank of Belgium.
- Du Caju, Ph. & Gautier, E. & Momferatou, D. & Ward-Warmedinger, M., 2008. "Institutional features of wage bargaining in 23 European countries, the US and Japan," Working papers 228, Banque de France.
- Du Caju, Philip & Gautier, Erwan & Momferatou, Daphne & Ward-Warmedinger, Melanie, 2008. "Institutional features of wage bargaining in 23 European countries, the US and Japan," Working Paper Series 0974, European Central Bank.
- Van Kerm, Philippe, 2009.
"Generalized measures of wage differentials,"
IRISS Working Paper Series
2009-08, IRISS at CEPS/INSTEAD.
- Daniela Del Boca & Daniela Vuri, 2006.
"The Mismatch between Employment and Child Care in Italy: the Impact of Rationing,"
CHILD Working Papers
wp08_06, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
- Daniela Del Boca & Daniela Vuri, 2007. "The mismatch between employment and child care in Italy: the impact of rationing," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 20(4), pages 805-832, October.
- Daniela Del Boca & Daniela Vuri, 2006. "The Mismatch between Employment and Child Care in Italy: the Impact of Rationing," Carlo Alberto Notebooks 31, Collegio Carlo Alberto.
- Siv Gustafsson & Frank Stafford, 1992. "Child Care Subsidies and Labor Supply in Sweden," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 27(1), pages 204-230.
- Nicole Fortin & Thomas Lemieux & Sergio Firpo, 2010.
"Decomposition Methods in Economics,"
NBER Working Papers
16045, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Martin Biewen & Stephen Jenkins, 2005. "A framework for the decomposition of poverty differences with an application to poverty differences between countries," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 331-358, 09.
- Sánchez-Mangas, Rocio & Sánchez-Marcos, Virginia, 2008. "Balancing family and work: The effect of cash benefits for working mothers," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 1127-1142, December.
- Melly, Blaise, 2005. "Decomposition of differences in distribution using quantile regression," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 577-590, August.
- Huber, Martin & Melly, Blaise, 2011. "Quantile Regression in the Presence of Sample Selection," Economics Working Paper Series 1109, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science.
- James Albrecht & Anders Bjorklund & Susan Vroman, 2003.
"Is There a Glass Ceiling in Sweden?,"
Journal of Labor Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(1), pages 145-177, January.
- Albrecht, James & van Vuuren, Aico & Vroman, Susan, 2009.
"Counterfactual distributions with sample selection adjustments: Econometric theory and an application to the Netherlands,"
Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 383-396, August.
- Jim Albrecht & Aico van Vuuren & Susan Vroman, 2007. "Counterfactual Distributions with Sample Selection Adjustments: Econometric Theory and an Application to the Netherlands," Working Papers gueconwpa~07-07-06, Georgetown University, Department of Economics.
- Eiko Kenjoh, 2005. "New Mothers' Employment and Public Policy in the UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Japan," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 19(s1), pages 5-49, December.
- SELEZNEVA Ekaterina & VAN KERM Philippe, 2013.
"Inequality-adjusted gender wage differentials in Germany,"
CEPS/INSTEAD Working Paper Series
- Ekaterina Selezneva & Philippe Van Kerm, 2013. "Inequality-Adjusted Gender Wage Differentials in Germany," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 579, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
- Ekaterina Selezneva & Philippe Van Kerm, 2013. "Inequality-adjusted gender wage differentials in Germany," Working Papers 334, Institut für Ost- und Südosteuropaforschung (Institute for East and South-East European Studies).
- Eva Arceo-Gómez & Raymundo M. Campos-Vázquez, 2013.
"Evolución de la brecha salarial de género en México,"
Documentos de Trabajo
DTE 556, CIDE, Division de Economia.
- Raymundo M. Campos-Vazquez & Eva O. Arceo-Gomez, 2013. "Evolución de la brecha salarial de género en México," Serie documentos de trabajo del Centro de Estudios EconÃ³micos 2013-07, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Económicos.
- Christos Koutsampelas, 2012. "Aspects of Elderly Poverty in Cyprus," Cyprus Economic Policy Review, University of Cyprus, Economics Research Centre, vol. 6(1), pages 69-89, June.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Stephen Kosempel).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.