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Birth Spacing, Fertility Selection and Child Survival: Analysis Using a Correlated Hazard Model

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  • Maitra, Pushkar

    ()
    (Monash University)

  • Pal, Sarmistha

    ()
    (University of Surrey)

Abstract

If fertility reflects the choice of households, results of their choice (duration between successive births and health of the children) cannot be considered to be randomly determined. While most existing studies of child health tend to overlook the effects of fertility selection on child health, this paper argues that not accounting for this selection issue yields biased estimates. Additionally it is difficult to a priori predict the direction of this bias, thereby over or under estimating the effect of spacing on child survival. We find that the estimates of birth spacing on child mortality are different when we do not account for fertility selection. Additionally the correlated hazard estimates that we present here better fit our samples than the corresponding bivariate probit estimates used in the literature. A comparison of the fertility behaviour of households in the Indian and Pakistani Punjab highlights the differential nature of institutions on demographic transition in these neighbouring regions.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 2878.

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Length: 42 pages
Date of creation: Jun 2007
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Journal of Health Economics, 2008, 27 (3), 690-705
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2878

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Keywords: fertility selection; correlated recursive hazard system; child mortality;

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References

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  1. Gerald Makepeace & Sarmistha Pal, 2005. "Understanding the Effects of Siblings on Child Mortality: Evidence from India," HEW 0509010, EconWPA.
  2. Pitt, Mark M. & Rosenzweig, Mark R., 1989. "The Selectivity of Fertility and the Determinants of Human Capital Investments: Parametric and Semi-Parametric Estimates," Bulletins 7511, University of Minnesota, Economic Development Center.
  3. Mark M. Pitt, 1997. "Estimating the Determinants of Child Health When Fertility and Mortality Are Selective," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 32(1), pages 129-158.
  4. Paul Schultz, T., 2002. "Why Governments Should Invest More to Educate Girls," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 207-225, February.
  5. Lillard, Lee A., 1993. "Simultaneous equations for hazards : Marriage duration and fertility timing," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1-2), pages 189-217, March.
  6. repec:fth:minnde:89-9 is not listed on IDEAS
  7. Jonathan Morduch, 2000. "Sibling Rivalry in Africa," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 405-409, May.
  8. Lillard, L.A. & Panis, C.W.A., 1993. "Health Inputs and Child Mortality: Malaysia," Papers 93-03, RAND - Labor and Population Program.
  9. Michael J. Brien & Lee A. Lillard, 1994. "Education, Marriage, and First Conception in Malaysia," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(4), pages 1167-1204.
  10. Ashish Garg & Jonathan Morduch, 1998. "Sibling rivalry and the gender gap: Evidence from child health outcomes in Ghana," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 11(4), pages 471-493.
  11. Lee, Lung-fei & Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Pitt, Mark M., 1997. "The effects of improved nutrition, sanitation, and water quality on child health in high-mortality populations," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 209-235, March.
  12. Anrudh Jain & T. Hsu & Ronald Freedman & M. Chang, 1970. "Demographic aspects of lactation and postpartum amenorrhea," Demography, Springer, vol. 7(2), pages 255-271, May.
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Cited by:
  1. Bas van der Klaauw & Limin Wang, 2005. "Child Mortality In Rural India," Working Papers id:136, eSocialSciences.
  2. Lay, Jann & Robilliard, Anne-Sophie, 2009. "The complementarity of MDG achievements : the case of child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5062, The World Bank.
  3. Halkos, George & Tzeremes, Nickolaos, 2011. "Examining the influence of access to improved water and sanitation sources on countries’ economic efficiency," MPRA Paper 30099, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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