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Gender, education and reciprocal generosity: Evidence from 1,500 experiment subjects

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  • Pablo Brañas-Garza

    (Universidad de Granada)

  • Juan C. Cárdenas

    (Universidad de los Andes)

  • Máximo Rossi

    (Universidad de la República, Uruguay)

Abstract

There is not general consensus about if women are more or less generous than men. Although the number of papers supporting more generous females is a bit larger than the opposed it is not possible to establish any definitive and systematic gender bias. This paper provides new evidence on this topic using a unique experimental dataset. We used data from a field experiment conducted under identical conditions (and monetary payoffs) in 6 Latin American cities, Bogotá, Buenos Aires, Caracas, Lima, Montevideo and San José. Our dataset amounted to 3,107 experimental subjects who played the Trust Game. We will analyze the determinants of behavior of second movers, that is, what determines reciprocal generosity. In sharp contrast to previous papers we found that males are more generous than females. In the light of this result, we carried out a systematic analysis of individual features (income, education, age, etc.) for females and males separately. We found differential motivations for women and men. Third, we see that (individual) education enhances pro-social behavior. Lastly, we see that subjects’ expectations are crucial.

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File URL: http://www.ecineq.org/milano/WP/ECINEQ2009-128.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality in its series Working Papers with number 128.

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Length: 32 pages
Date of creation: 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:inq:inqwps:ecineq2009-128

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Keywords: Reciprocal altruism; gender; education;

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  1. James C. Cox & Cary A. Deck, 2006. "When Are Women More Generous than Men?," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, Western Economic Association International, vol. 44(4), pages 587-598, October.
  2. Ananish Chaudhuri & Lata Gangadharn, 2003. "Gender Differences in Trust and Reciprocity," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series, The University of Melbourne 875, The University of Melbourne.
  3. Eckel, Catherine C. & Grossman, Philip J., 2008. "Men, Women and Risk Aversion: Experimental Evidence," Handbook of Experimental Economics Results, Elsevier, Elsevier.
  4. Andreoni, James & Vesterlund, Lise, 2001. "Which is the Fair Sex? Gender Differences in Altruism," Staff General Research Papers, Iowa State University, Department of Economics 1951, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  5. Fernando Aguiar & Pablo Branas-Garza & Luis M. Miller, 2007. "Moral Distance and Moral Motivations in Dictator Games," Jena Economic Research Papers, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics 2007-047, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  6. Glenn W. Harrison & John A. List, 2004. "Field Experiments," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(4), pages 1009-1055, December.
  7. Hugo Ñopo & Alberto Chong & Juan Camilo Cardenas, 2008. "Stated Social Behavior and Revealed Actions: Evidence from Six Latin American Countries Using Representative Samples," Research Department Publications, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department 4575, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  8. John A. List & Imran Rasul, 2010. "Field Experiments in Labor Economics," NBER Working Papers 16062, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Pablo Brañas-Garza & Shoshana Neuman, 2007. "Parental religiosity and daughters’ fertility: the case of Catholics in southern Europe," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 305-327, September.
  10. Zak, Paul J & Knack, Stephen, 2001. "Trust and Growth," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 111(470), pages 295-321, April.
  11. Berg Joyce & Dickhaut John & McCabe Kevin, 1995. "Trust, Reciprocity, and Social History," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 122-142, July.
  12. Steven D. Levitt & John A. List, 2007. "What Do Laboratory Experiments Measuring Social Preferences Reveal About the Real World?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 21(2), pages 153-174, Spring.
  13. Jaromir Kovarik, 2007. "Belief Formation and Evolution in Public Good Games," Labsi Experimental Economics Laboratory University of Siena, University of Siena 016, University of Siena.
  14. Ana Leon-Mejia & Luis M. Miller, 2007. "The Devil is in the Details - Sex Differences in Simple Bargaining Games," Jena Economic Research Papers, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics 2007-069, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  15. Pablo Brañas-Garza & Shoshana Neuman, 2006. "Is fertility related to religiosity?-Evidence from Spain," Papers on Economics of Religion, Department of Economic Theory and Economic History of the University of Granada. 06/06, Department of Economic Theory and Economic History of the University of Granada..
  16. Claudia Keser & Frans A.A.M. van Winden, 2000. "Conditional Cooperation and Voluntary Contributions to Public Goods," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 00-011/1, Tinbergen Institute.
  17. Hoddinott, John & Haddad, Lawrence, 1995. "Does Female Income Share Influence Household Expenditures? Evidence from Cote d'Ivoire," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 57(1), pages 77-96, February.
  18. Nancy Buchan & Rachel Croson, 1999. "Gender and Culture: International Experimental Evidence from Trust Games," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 386-391, May.
  19. Abigail Barr & Pieter Serneels, 2009. "Reciprocity in the workplace," Experimental Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 99-112, March.
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Cited by:
  1. Selim Jürgen Ergun & Teresa García-Muñoz & M.Fernanda Rivas, 2010. "Gender Differences in Economic Experiments," ThE Papers, Department of Economic Theory and Economic History of the University of Granada. 10/14, Department of Economic Theory and Economic History of the University of Granada..

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