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Do women behave more reciprocally than men? Gender differences in real effort dictator games

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  • Heinz, Matthias
  • Juranek, Steffen
  • Rau, Holger A.

Abstract

We analyze dictator allocation decisions in an experiment where the recipients have to earn the pot to be divided with a real-effort task. As the recipients move before the dictators, their effort decisions resemble the first move in a trust game. Depending on the recipients’ performance, the size of the pot is either high or low. We compare this real-effort treatment to a baseline treatment where the pot is a windfall gain and where a lottery determines the pot size. In the baseline treatment, reciprocity cannot play a role. We find that female dictators show reciprocity and decrease their taking-rates significantly in the real-effort treatment. This treatment effect is larger when female dictators make a decision on recipients who successfully generated a large pot compared to the case where the recipients performed poorly. By contrast, there is no treatment effect with male dictators, who generally exhibit more selfish behavior.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization.

Volume (Year): 83 (2012)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 105-110

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Handle: RePEc:eee:jeborg:v:83:y:2012:i:1:p:105-110

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jebo

Related research

Keywords: C72; C91; Gender; Reciprocity; Dictator game; Real effort;

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Blog mentions

As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
  1. Do women behave more reciprocally than men? (Hint: yes)
    by Nicholas Gruen in Club Troppo on 2011-08-03 02:28:41
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Cited by:
  1. Haucap, Justus & Herr, Annika & Frank, Björn, 2011. "In vino veritas: Theory and evidence on social drinking," DICE Discussion Papers 37, Heinrich‐Heine‐Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
  2. Jan Stoop, 2014. "From the lab to the field: envelopes, dictators and manners," Experimental Economics, Springer, vol. 17(2), pages 304-313, June.
  3. Benndorf, Volker & Rau, Holger A., 2012. "Competition in the workplace: An experimental investigation," DICE Discussion Papers 53, Heinrich‐Heine‐Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
  4. Christin, Clémence, 2011. "Entry deterrence through cooperative R&D over-investment," DICE Discussion Papers 38, Heinrich‐Heine‐Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
  5. Gu, Yiquan & Wenzel, Tobias, 2012. "Transparency, entry, and productivity," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 7-10.
  6. Stühmeier, Torben & Wenzel, Tobias, 2012. "Regulating advertising in the presence of public service broadcasting," DICE Discussion Papers 41, Heinrich‐Heine‐Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
  7. Coenen, Michael & Jovanovic, Dragan, 2012. "Investment behavior in a constrained dictator game," DICE Discussion Papers 77, Heinrich‐Heine‐Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).

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