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Employment Protection and Gross Job Flows1

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  • Alejandro Micco - Carmen Pages

Abstract

This paper examines the empirical relation between employment protection regulation and gross job flows in a sample of developed and developing countries. By implementing a difference in difference test we avoid the potentially severe endogeneity and omitted variable problems associated with cross-country regressions. This test is based on the hypothesis that job security regulations are more binding in some sectors of economic activity than in others depending on sector-specific characteristics such as product demand volatility or factor specificity. Unlike most of the existing literature, our analysis indicates that more stringent job security regulations slow down job reallocation. This is more so in sectors that require higher labor flexibility. These effects occur within the sample of developed and developing countries and are large in magnitude. Moreover, they are robust to changes in regulatory measures, measurement of sector flexibility requirements, control variables and samples. In contrast, regulations on firm entry and exit seem to play a limited role in reducing job flow

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Econometric Society in its series Econometric Society 2004 Latin American Meetings with number 295.

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Date of creation: 11 Aug 2004
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Handle: RePEc:ecm:latm04:295

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Keywords: Employment Protection policies; Job Creation; Job Destruction; Employment flows and Firm entry and Exit.;

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References

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  1. Bertola, Giuseppe, 1990. "Job security, employment and wages," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 851-879, June.
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  3. David Autor & Lawrence Katz & Alan Krueger, 1997. "Computing Inequality: Have Computers Changed the Labor Market?," Working Papers 756, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  4. Hopenhayn, Hugo & Rogerson, Richard, 1993. "Job Turnover and Policy Evaluation: A General Equilibrium Analysis," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(5), pages 915-38, October.
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  7. Nickell, Stephen & Layard, Richard, 1999. "Labor market institutions and economic performance," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 46, pages 3029-3084 Elsevier.
  8. Davis, Steven J. & Haltiwanger, John, 1999. "Gross job flows," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 41, pages 2711-2805 Elsevier.
  9. Claessens, Stijn & Laeven, Luc, 2002. "Financial Development, Property Rights and Growth," CEPR Discussion Papers 3295, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  10. Hernanz, Virginia & Jimeno, Juan Francisco & Kugler, Adriana D., 2003. "Employment Consequences of Restrictive Permanent Contracts: Evidence from Spanish Labour Market Reforms," CEPR Discussion Papers 3724, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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  12. bertola, G. & Rogerson, R., 1996. "Institutions and Labor Reallocation," Papers 272, Banca Italia - Servizio di Studi.
  13. Steven J. Davis & John C. Haltiwanger & Scott Schuh, 1998. "Job Creation and Destruction," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262540932, December.
  14. Eduardo Lora, 2001. "Structural Reforms in Latin America: What Has Been Reformed and How to Measure It," Research Department Publications 4293, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  15. Alex Grey, 1995. "Job Gains and Job Losses: Recent Literature and Trends," OECD Jobs Study Working Papers 1, OECD Publishing.
  16. Ricardo J. Caballero & Eduardo Engel & John Haltiwanger, 1996. "Aggregate Employment Dynamics: Building from Microeconomic Evidence," Documentos de Trabajo 6, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
  17. Stephen Nickell, 1997. "Unemployment and Labor Market Rigidities: Europe versus North America," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 11(3), pages 55-74, Summer.
  18. Bergoeing, Raphael & Repetto, Andrea & Edwards, Sebastian, 2004. "Productivity dynamics," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(2), pages 329-332, December.
  19. Pedro Portugal & Olivier Blanchard, 2001. "What Hides Behind an Unemployment Rate: Comparing Portuguese and U.S. Labor Markets," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(1), pages 187-207, March.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Poschke, Markus, 2007. "Employment Protection, Firm Selection, and Growth," IZA Discussion Papers 3164, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Galli, Rossana & Kucera, David, 2008. "Gender, informality and employment adjustment in Latin America," ILO Working Papers 413500, International Labour Organization.
  3. Haltiwanger, John & Scarpetta, Stefano & Schweiger, Helena, 2006. "Assessing job flows across countries : the role of industry, firm size, and regulations," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4070, The World Bank.
  4. Haltiwanger, John & Kugler, Adriana & Kugler, Maurice & Micco, Alejandro & Pagés, Carmen, 2004. "Effects of tariffs and real exchange rates on job reallocation: evidence from Latin America," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 0410, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
  5. Almeida, Rita K. & Carneiro, Pedro, 2007. "Inequality and Employment in a Dual Economy: Enforcement of Labor Regulation in Brazil," IZA Discussion Papers 3094, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Jaime Gatica & Pilar Romaguera, 2005. "El Mercado Laboral en Chile Nuevos Temas y Desaf�os," Documentos de Trabajo 210, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
  7. Carmen Pagés-Serra & Alejandro Micco, 2008. "The Economic Effects of Employment Protection: Evidence from International Industry-Level Data," Research Department Publications 4496, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.

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