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Decomposing Gender and Ethnic Earnings Gaps in Seven West African Cities

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  • Christophe Nordman

    ()
    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

  • Anne-Sophie Robilliard

    ()
    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

  • François Roubaud

    ()
    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

Abstract

(english) In this paper, we analyse the size and determinants of gender and ethnic earnings gaps in seven West African capitals (Abidjan, Bamako, Cotonou, Dakar, Lome, Niamey and Ouagadougou) based on a unique and perfectly comparable dataset coming from the 1-2-3 Surveys conducted in the seven cities from 2001 to 2002. Analysing gender and ethnic earnings gaps in an African context raises a number of important issues that our paper attempts to address, notably by taking into account labour allocation between public, private formal and informal sectors which can be expected to contribute to earnings gaps. Our results show that gender earnings gaps are large in all the cities of our sample and that gender differences in the distribution of characteristics usually explain less than half of the raw gender gap. By contrast, majority ethnic groups do not appear to have a systematic favourable position in the urban labour markets of our sample of countries and observed ethnic gaps are small relative to gender gaps. Whatever the “sign” of the gap, the contribution of differences in the distribution of individual characteristics varies markedly between cities. Taking into account differences in sectoral locations in the decomposition of gender earnings gaps provides evidence that within-sector differences in earnings account for the largest share of the gender gap and that the differences in sectoral locations are always more favorable to men than to women. By contrast, concerning ethnic earnings gaps, the full decomposition indicates that sectoral location sometimes plays a “compensating” role against observed earnings gaps. Looking at finer levels of ethnic disaggregation confirms that ethnic earnings differentials are systematically smaller that gender differentials. _________________________________ (français) Dans cette étude nous analysons le poids et les déterminants des différentiels de rémunérations entre genre et groupes ethniques dans sept métropoles d’Afrique de l’Ouest (Abidjan, Bamako, Cotonou, Dakar, Lomé, Niamey and Ouagadougou), en mobilisant une base de données unique et parfaitement comparable, provenant des enquêtes 1-2-3 réalisées dans les sept villes en 2001 et 2002. Cette question soulève un certain nombre de questions méthodologiques que nous tentons de traiter en détail, notamment en tenant compte des différences de composition ethnique et de genre entre les secteurs public, privé formel et informel qui sont susceptibles de jouer sur les écarts de revenus. Les résultats mettent en évidence l’existence d’un déficit systématique de rémunération pour les femmes, les caractéristiques des emplois expliquant moins de la moitié de ces écarts. A contrario, les groupes ethniques majoritaires ne semblent pas bénéficier d’une situation avantageuse et les écarts de revenus suivant le groupe ethnique sont relativement faibles par rapport à ceux que l’on observe suivant le genre. Quel que soit le signe de ce différentiel (positif ou négatif), la contribution expliquée par les caractéristiques observées de l’emploi varie très sensiblement d’une ville à l’autre. Les estimations montrent qu’une grande partie de l’écart de revenu selon le genre provient de l’allocation sectorielle, et que cette dernière est toujours défavorable aux femmes. En revanche, dans le cas des écarts suivant le groupe ethnique, la distribution par secteur institutionnel joue parfois de façon positive dans le sens d’une réduction des écarts. Finalement, une désagrégation plus fine des groupes ethniques, au-delà de la partition majoritaire/minoritaire, confirme que l’entrée ethnique est systématiquement moins significative sur les revenus du travail que le genre.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) in its series Working Papers with number DT/2009/07.

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Length: 30 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt200907

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Keywords: earnings equations; gender wage gap; ethnic wage gap; West Africa; Equation de gain; écart de salaire; décomposition; genre; Ethnie; Afrique de l'Ouest.;

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Cited by:
  1. Dimova, Ralitza & Nordman, Christophe Jalil & Roubaud, François, 2008. "Allocation of Labour in Urban West Africa: Implication for Development Policies," IZA Discussion Papers 3558, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Wolff, François-Charles & Nordman, Christophe Jalil, 2010. "Gender Differences in Pay in African Manufacturing Firms," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/10806, Paris Dauphine University.
  3. Boniface Ngah Epo & Francis Menjo Baye & Nadine Teme Angele Manga, 2011. "Spatial and Inter-temporal Sources of Poverty, Inequality and Gender Disparities in Cameroon: a Regression-Based Decomposition Analysis," Working Papers PMMA 2011-15, PEP-PMMA.
  4. KUEPIE Mathias & DZOSSA Anaclet Désiré & KELODJOUE Samuel, 2013. "Determinants of labor market gender inequalities in Cameroon, Senegal and Mali: the role of human capital and the fertility burden," CEPS/INSTEAD Working Paper Series 2013-08, CEPS/INSTEAD.

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