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The Effects of Competition and Equal Treatment Laws on the Gender Wage Differential

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  • Weichselbaumer, Doris

    ()
    (University of Linz)

  • Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    ()
    (University of Linz)

Abstract

This paper evaluates the impact of economic and legal variables on wage differentials between men and women. Since Becker (1957) economists have argued that competitive markets eliminate discrimination in the long run. On the other hand, practically all countries have enacted some sort of law mandating equal treatment of men and women. This paper uses a new international data set on the gender wage gap, which is constructed via a metaanalysis of existing studies. The findings show that both increased competition and the enactment of equal treatment laws reduce the gender wage gap.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 822.

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Length: 26 pages
Date of creation: Jul 2003
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Economic Policy, 2007, 22 (50), 235-287
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp822

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Keywords: competition; equal treatment law; gender wage gap;

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References

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  1. Lawrence M. Kahn, 1991. "Discrimination in professional sports: A survey of the literature," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 44(3), pages 395-418, April.
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  16. T.D. Stanley & Stephen B. Jarrell, 1998. "Gender Wage Discrimination Bias? A Meta-Regression Analysis," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 33(4), pages 947-973.
  17. Sandra E. Black & Philip E. Strahan, 2001. "The Division of Spoils: Rent-Sharing and Discrimination in a Regulated Industry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 91(4), pages 814-831, September.
  18. Blau, Francine D & Kahn, Lawrence M, 1996. "Wage Structure and Gender Earnings Differentials: An International Comparison," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 63(250), pages S29-62, Suppl..
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  21. Blau, Francine D & Kahn, Lawrence M, 1992. "The Gender Earnings Gap: Learning from International Comparisons," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 82(2), pages 533-38, May.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Solomon W. Polachek & Jun Xiang, 2009. "The Gender Pay Gap across Countries: A Human Capital Approach," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 227, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  2. Doris Weichselbaumer & Rudolf Winter-Ebmer, 2005. "A Meta-Analysis of the International Gender Wage Gap," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(3), pages 479-511, 07.
  3. Ganguli, Ina & Terrell, Katherine, 2005. "Wage Ceilings and Floors: The Gender Gap in Ukraine's Transition," IZA Discussion Papers 1776, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Boris Hirsch & Michael Oberfichtner & Claus Schnabel, 2012. "Do women benefit from competitive markets? Product market competition and the gender pay gap in Germany," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 32(2), pages 1618-1624.
  5. Thomas Schober & Rudolf Winter-Ebmer, 2009. "Gender Wage Inequality and Economic Growth: Is there Really a Puzzle?," NRN working papers, The Austrian Center for Labor Economics and the Analysis of the Welfare State, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria 2009-08, The Austrian Center for Labor Economics and the Analysis of the Welfare State, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
  6. Schober, Thomas & Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf, 2011. "Gender Wage Inequality and Economic Growth: Is There Really a Puzzle?--A Comment," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 39(8), pages 1476-1484, August.
  7. Boockmann, Bernhard, 2004. "The Effect of ILO Minimum Age Conventions on Child Labour and School Attendance," ZEW Discussion Papers, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research 04-52, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  8. repec:iab:iabmit:v:36:i:4:p:539-559 is not listed on IDEAS
  9. Hübler, Olaf, 2003. "Geschlechtsspezifische Lohnunterschiede (Gender-specific wage differentials)," Mitteilungen aus der Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany], Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany], vol. 36(4), pages 539-559.

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