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Traffic Congestion and Accidents

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Author Info

  • Schrage, Andrea

Abstract

Obstructions caused by accidents can trigger or exacerbate traffic congestion. This paper derives the efficient traffic pattern for a rush hour with congestion and accidents and the corresponding road toll. Compared to the model without accidents, where the toll equals external costs imposed on drivers using the road at the same time, a new insight arises: An optimal toll also internalizes the expected increase in future congestion costs. Since accidents affect more drivers if traffic volumes are rising than when they are declining, the efficient charge depends upon the demand for road use during the rest of the peak period. Verkehrsunfälle können Staus auslösen oder verschlimmern. In diesem Papier wird das effiziente Straßennutzungsmuster während einer Stoßzeit mit Staus und Unfällen sowie die entsprechende Straßennutzungsgebühr bestimmt. Verglichen mit einem deterministischen Modell ohne Unfälle, in dem die optimale Maut den externen Kosten entspricht, die gleichzeitig fahrenden Straßennutzern aufgebürdet werden, ergibt sich folgende neue Erkenntnis: Die optimale Gebühr internalisiert auch den erwarteten Anstieg späterer Staukosten. Da Unfälle bei zunehmender Straßennutzung mehr Fahrer betreffen als bei abnehmendem Verkehrsaufkommen, muss die effiziente Gebühr auch die verbleibende Verkehrsnachfrage über den Rest der Stoßzeit berücksichtigen.

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File URL: http://epub.uni-regensburg.de/4535/1/Congestion_and_Accidents_WP.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Regensburg, Department of Economics in its series University of Regensburg Working Papers in Business, Economics and Management Information Systems with number 419.

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Date of creation: 2006
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Handle: RePEc:bay:rdwiwi:736

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Related research

Keywords: Verkehrsstau ; Verkehrsunfall ; Straßenbenutzungsgebühr;

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References

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  1. Henderson, J. V., 1974. "Road congestion : A reconsideration of pricing theory," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(3), pages 346-365, July.
  2. Peirson, John & Skinner, Ian & Vickerman, Roger, 1998. "The Microeconomic Analysis of the External Costs of Road Accidents," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 65(259), pages 429-40, August.
  3. Aaron S. Edlin & Pinar Karaca-Mandic, 2006. "The Accident Externality from Driving," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 114(5), pages 931-955, October.
  4. C. Robin Lindsey & Erik T. Verhoef, 1999. "Congestion Modelling," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 99-091/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  5. Parry, Ian W. H., 2004. "Comparing alternative policies to reduce traffic accidents," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 346-368, September.
  6. Arnott, R. & De Palma, A. & Lindseyt, R., 1995. "Recent Developments in the Bottleneck Model," Papers 9523, Paris X - Nanterre, U.F.R. de Sc. Ec. Gest. Maths Infor..
  7. Hau, Timothy D., 1992. "Economic fundamentals of road pricing : a diagrammatic analysis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1070, The World Bank.
  8. Andrew Dickerson & John Peirson & Roger Vickerman, 1998. "Road Accidents and Traffic Flows: An Econometric Investigation," Studies in Economics 9809, Department of Economics, University of Kent.
  9. Vickrey, William S, 1969. "Congestion Theory and Transport Investment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(2), pages 251-60, May.
  10. Jens Schade & Bernhard Schlag, 2000. "Acceptability of Urban Transport Pricing," Research Reports 72, Government Institute for Economic Research Finland (VATT).
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Cited by:
  1. Fosgerau, Mogens & Lindsey, Robin, 2013. "Trip-timing decisions with traffic incidents," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(5), pages 764-782.

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