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A simulation estimator for testing the time homogeneity of credit rating transitions

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  • Kiefer, Nicholas M.
  • Larson, C. Erik

Abstract

The measurement of credit quality is at the heart of the models designed to assess the reserves and capital needed to support the risks of both individual credits and portfolios of credit instruments. A popular specification for credit- rating transitions is the simple, time-homogeneous Markov model. While the Markov specification cannot really describe processes in the long run, it may be useful for adequately describing short-run changes in portfolio risk. In this specification, the entire stochastic process can be characterized in terms of estimated transition probabilities. However, the simple homogeneous Markovian transition framework is restrictive. We propose a test of the null hypotheses of time-homogeneity that can be performed on the sorts of data often reported. We apply the tests to 4 data sets, on commercial paper, sovereign debt, municipal bonds and S&P Corporates. The results indicate that commercial paper looks Markovian on a 30-day time scale for up to 6 months; sovereign debt also looks Markovian (perhaps due to a small sample size); municipals are well-modeled by the Markov specification for up to 5 years, but could probably benefit from frequent updating of the estimated transition matrix or from more sophisticated modeling, and S&P Corporate ratings are approximately Markov over 3 transitions but not 4.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Empirical Finance.

Volume (Year): 14 (2007)
Issue (Month): 5 (December)
Pages: 818-835

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Handle: RePEc:eee:empfin:v:14:y:2007:i:5:p:818-835

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References

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  1. Jafry, Yusuf & Schuermann, Til, 2004. "Measurement, estimation and comparison of credit migration matrices," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(11), pages 2603-2639, November.
  2. Gourieroux, C. & Monfort, A. & Renault, E., 1992. "Indirect Inference," Papers 92.279, Toulouse - GREMAQ.
  3. Anil Bangia & Francis X. Diebold & Til Schuermann, 2000. "Ratings Migration and the Business Cycle, With Application to Credit Portfolio Stress Testing," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 00-26, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  4. Lando, David & Skodeberg, Torben M., 2002. "Analyzing rating transitions and rating drift with continuous observations," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(2-3), pages 423-444, March.
  5. Gallant, A. Ronald & Tauchen, George, 1996. "Which Moments to Match?," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 12(04), pages 657-681, October.
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Cited by:
  1. José E. Gómez González & Nicholas M. Kiefer, 2007. "Evidence of non-Markovian behavior in the process of bank rating migrations," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 004016, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  2. Weißbach, Rafael & Mollenhauer, Thomas, 2011. "Modelling Rating Transitions," Annual Conference 2011 (Frankfurt, Main): The Order of the World Economy - Lessons from the Crisis 48698, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
  3. Chateau, John-Peter D., 2009. "Marking-to-model credit and operational risks of loan commitments: A Basel-2 advanced internal ratings-based approach," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 260-270, December.
  4. Dimitris Gavalas & Theodore Syriopoulos, 2014. "Bank Credit Risk Management and Rating Migration Analysis on the Business Cycle," International Journal of Financial Studies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 2(1), pages 122-143, March.
  5. Jose E. Gómez & Paola Morales & Fernando Pineda & nzamudgo@banrep.gov.co, . "An Alternative Methodology for Estimating Credit Quality Transition Matrices," Borradores de Economia 478, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  6. Weißbach, Rafael & Walter, Ronja, 2010. "A likelihood ratio test for stationarity of rating transitions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 155(2), pages 188-194, April.
  7. David Wozabal & Ronald Hochreiter, 2009. "A Coupled Markov Chain Approach to Credit Risk Modeling," Papers 0911.3802, arXiv.org, revised Jan 2014.
  8. Weißbach, Rafael & Walter, Ronja, 2008. "A likelihood ratio test for stationarity of rating transitions," Technical Reports 2008,27, Technische Universität Dortmund, Sonderforschungsbereich 475: Komplexitätsreduktion in multivariaten Datenstrukturen.
  9. Weißbach, Rafael & Dette, Holger, 2008. "Bias in nearest-neighbor hazard estimation," Technical Reports 2008,15, Technische Universität Dortmund, Sonderforschungsbereich 475: Komplexitätsreduktion in multivariaten Datenstrukturen.

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