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Leistungsfördernde Anreize für das Schulsystem

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  • Ludger Wößmann

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Abstract

In den vergangenen beiden Ausgaben des ifo Schnelldienstes wurden in der Serie »Ökonomische Beiträge zur Schuldebatte« der Einfluss von Klassengrößen und Computereinsatz auf die Schülerleistungen untersucht. Fazit: Mehr Geld für Bildung ist zuwenig, höhere Bildungsausgaben sind keine Qualitätsgarantie. Da es also nicht um »more of the same« gehen kann, wendet sich der vorliegende Beitrag tiefer greifenden institutionellen Reformmöglichkeiten des Schulsystems zu, von denen sich eine Steigerung der Effizienz des Bildungsprozesses erhoffen lässt. Die vorgestellte internationale empirische Evidenz belegt, dass Institutionen wie externe Prüfungen, Dezentralisierung und Wettbewerbselemente Anreize im Schulsystem schaffen können, damit sich die Beteiligten im Sinne einer Leistungsförderung verhalten. Die Leistungen von Schülern in Ländern, die vorgegebene Standards extern überprüfen, sind signifikant besser. Insbesondere dort, wo solche externen Prüfungen die Schulen für ihr Verhalten zur Rechenschaft ziehen, führt auch ein höherer Grad von Selbständigkeit der Schulen, insbesondere in Personal- und Prozessfragen, zu einem höheren Kompetenzgewinn der Schüler. Und verschiedene Wettbewerbselemente im Schulsystem gehen ebenfalls mit besseren Schülerleistungen einher. Die empirischen Ergebnisse legen also nahe, dass in institutionellen Reformen, die die Anreize der Beteiligten auf die Förderung der Schülerleistungen ausrichten, die wirklichen Chancen für das deutsche Bildungssystem stecken. Während sich der vorliegende Beitrag insbesondere mit institutionellen Einflüssen auf das Leistungsniveau und damit mit Effizienzfragen des Schulsystems beschäftigt, wird sich der vierte und letzte Beitrag der Serie im übernächsten Heft mit institutionellen Rahmenbedingungen des Schulsystems befassen, die die Chancengleichheit im Schulsystem beeinflussen.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich in its journal ifo Schnelldienst.

Volume (Year): 58 (2005)
Issue (Month): 19 (October)
Pages: 18-27

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Handle: RePEc:ces:ifosdt:v:58:y:2005:i:19:p:18-27

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Cited by:
  1. Ludger Wö�mann, 2006. "Bildungspolitische Lehren aus den internationalen Schülertests: Wettbewerb, Autonomie und externe Leistungsüberprüfung," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 7(3), pages 417-444, 08.

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