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Efficiency and Equity of European Education and Training Policies

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  • Ludger Woessmann

Abstract

This paper reviews empirical evidence, especially from Europe, on how education and training policies can be designed to advance both efficiency and equity. Returns to educational investments tend to decrease over the life cycle. Moreover, they seem to be highest for children from disadvantaged families at early stages and for the well-off at late stages of the life cycle. This creates complementarities between efficiency and equity at early stages and trade-offs at late stages. The paper goes on to discuss specific policies for efficiency and equity at each educational stage, ranging from early childhood education and schools over vocational and higher education to training and lifelong learning. The available evidence suggests that both efficiency and equity can be enhanced by output-oriented reforms properly designed to each stage, where the state generally sets a regulatory framework that ensures accountability and funding and uses the forces of choice and competition to deliver best results. Designed this way, education and training systems can advance efficiency and equity at the same time.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 1779.

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Date of creation: 2006
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Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_1779

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Keywords: education; training; Europe; efficiency; equity; life cycle; trade-off;

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Cited by:
  1. Kemnitz, Alexander, 2005. "Educational Federalism and the Quality Effects of Tuition Fees," Discussion Papers 617, Institut fuer Volkswirtschaftslehre und Statistik, Abteilung fuer Volkswirtschaftslehre.
  2. Sean Archer, 2007. "The International Literature on Skills Training and the Scope for South African Application," Working Papers 07124, University of Cape Town, Development Policy Research Unit.
  3. Marcel Gérard, 2008. "Financing Bologna, the Internationally Mobile Students in European Higher Education," CESifo Working Paper Series 2391, CESifo Group Munich.
  4. De Witte, K. & Verschelde, M., 2010. "On estimating the effectiveness of resources. A local maximum likelihood frontier approach on care for students," Working Papers 16, Top Institute for Evidence Based Education Research.
  5. Petra Sauer & Petra Völkerer, 2010. "Schafft Bildung sozialen Zusammenhalt?," Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft - WuG, Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien, Abteilung Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Statistik, vol. 36(1), pages 53-78.
  6. Brian Burgoon & Bea Cantillon & Giacomo Corneo & Marloes Graaf-zijl & Tony Fahey & Horn, D. & Bram Lancee & Virginia Maestri & Ive Marx & Abigail Mcknight & Márton Medgyesi & Elena Meschi & Michelle , 2011. "Inequalities' Impacts: State of the Art Review," GINI Discussion Papers re1, AIAS, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies.
  7. Gabriele Ballarino & Michela Braga & Massimiliano Bratti & Daniele Checchi & Antonio Filippin & Carlo V. Fiorio & Marco Leonardi & Elena Meschi & Francesco Scervini, 2013. "GINI Country Report: Growing Inequalities and their Impacts in Italy," GINI Country Reports italy, AIAS, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies.
  8. HINDRIKS, Jean & VERSCHELDE, Marijn & RAYP, Glenn & SCHOORS, Koen, 2010. "School autonomy and educational performance: within-country evidence," CORE Discussion Papers 2010082, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  9. Hermann, Z. & Horn, D., 2011. "How are inequality of opportunity and mean student performance related? A quantile regression approach using PISA data," Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 11(3).
  10. Eichhorst, Werner & Rodríguez-Planas, Núria & Schmidl, Ricarda & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2012. "A Roadmap to Vocational Education and Training Systems Around the World," IZA Discussion Papers 7110, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Frank Oskamp & Dennis J. Snower, 2007. "Interactions between Employment and Training Policies," Kiel Working Papers 1389, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  12. Herbst, Mikolaj & Rok, Jakub, 2011. "Equity in an educational boom: Lessons from the expansion and marketization of tertiary schooling in Poland," MPRA Paper 33795, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  13. Zoltan Hermann & Daniel Horn, 2011. "How inequality of opportunity and mean student performance are related? - A quantile regression approach using PISA data," IEHAS Discussion Papers 1124, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
  14. BenDavid-Hadar, Iris & Ziderman, Adrian, 2010. "A New Model for Equitable and Efficient Resource Allocation to Schools: The Israeli Case," IZA Discussion Papers 4822, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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