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The Effect of Entry on R&D Investment of Leaders: Theory and Empirical Evidence

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  • Czarnitzki, Dirk
  • Etro, Federico Gabriele
  • Kraft, Kornelius

Abstract

We develop a simple model of competition for the market that shows that, contrary to the Arrow view, endogenous entry threat in a market induces the average firm to invest less in R&D and the incumbent leader to invest more. We test these predictions with a Tobit model based on a unique dataset and survey for the German manufacturing sector (the Mannheim Innovation Panel). We confirm the empirical validity of our predictions and perform a number of robustness test with instrumental variables.

Suggested Citation

  • Czarnitzki, Dirk & Etro, Federico Gabriele & Kraft, Kornelius, 2008. "The Effect of Entry on R&D Investment of Leaders: Theory and Empirical Evidence," ZEW Discussion Papers 08-078, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:7421
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Partha Dasgupta & Joseph Stiglitz, 1980. "Uncertainty, Industrial Structure, and the Speed of R&D," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 11(1), pages 1-28, Spring.
    2. Zigic, Kresimir & Maçi, Ilir, 2011. "Competition policy and market leaders," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 1042-1049, May.
    3. Smith, Richard J & Blundell, Richard W, 1986. "An Exogeneity Test for a Simultaneous Equation Tobit Model with an Application to Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(3), pages 679-685, May.
    4. Avner Shaked & John Sutton, 1982. "Relaxing Price Competition Through Product Differentiation," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 49(1), pages 3-13.
    5. Allen N. Berger & Seth D. Bonime & Lawrence G. Goldberg & Lawrence J. White, 2004. "The Dynamics of Market Entry: The Effects of Mergers and Acquisitions on Entry in the Banking Industry," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 77(4), pages 797-834, October.
    6. Lyons, Bruce & Matraves, Catherine & Moffatt, Peter, 2001. "Industrial Concentration and Market Integration in the European Union," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 68(269), pages 1-26, February.
    7. Federico Etro, 2008. "Stackelberg Competition with Endogenous Entry," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(532), pages 1670-1697, October.
    8. Federico Etro, 2006. "Aggressive leaders," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 37(1), pages 146-154, March.
    9. Geroski, P. A., 1995. "What do we know about entry?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 421-440, December.
    10. Federico Etro, 2004. "Innovation by leaders," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(495), pages 281-303, April.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Diekhof, Josefine & Cantner, Uwe, 2017. "Incumbents' responses to innovative entrants: A multi-country dynamic analysis," ZEW Discussion Papers 17-052, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    2. Kresimir Zigic, 2011. "Strategic Interactions in Markets with Innovative Activity: The Cases of Strategic Trade Policy and Market Leadership," CERGE-EI Books, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economics Institute, Prague, edition 1, number b06, November.
    3. Slivko, Olga, 2012. "Innovation strategies of German firms: The effect of competition and intellectual property protection," ZEW Discussion Papers 12-089, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    4. Susumu Cato & Ryoko Oki, 2012. "Leaders and competitors," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 107(3), pages 239-255, November.
    5. Javier Changoluisa & Michael Fritsch, 2016. "New Business Formation and Incumbents' Perception of Competitive Pressure," Jena Economic Research Papers 2016-019, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
    6. Armando Garcia Pires, 2014. "Beyond Trade Costs: Firms’ Endogenous Access to International Markets," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 14(2), pages 229-257, June.
    7. Fritsch, Michael & Changoluisa, Javier, 2017. "New business formation and the productivity of manufacturing incumbents: Effects and mechanisms," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 237-259.
    8. Uwe Cantner & Josefine Diekhof, 2017. "Incumbents' Asymmetric Responses to Environmentally Friendly Entrants in the Automotive Industry," Jena Economic Research Papers 2017-004, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, revised 13 Jul 2017.
    9. Zigic, Kresimir & Maçi, Ilir, 2011. "Competition policy and market leaders," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 1042-1049, May.
    10. Olga Slivko & Bernd Theilen, 2014. "Innovation or imitation? The effect of spillovers and competitive pressure on firms’ R&D strategy choice," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 112(3), pages 253-282, July.
    11. Emmanuel Petrakis & Nikolas Tsakas, 2016. "The effect of entry on R&D networks," University of Cyprus Working Papers in Economics 08-2016, University of Cyprus Department of Economics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    R&D; Entry; Endogenous market structures; Leadership;

    JEL classification:

    • O32 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives

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