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Education, Gender and Earnings in France and Germany: Level and Dispersion Effects

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  • Lauer, Charlotte

Abstract

This paper analyses the relationship between education, gender and earnings in France and Germany. The model chosen here enables to estimate the impact of education not only on the expected earnings level but also on their dispersion, taking gender-specific sample selectivity into account. The results indicate that the completion of a minimum level of general instruction yields an earnings premium that cannot compensated by a vocational degree. Moreover, education affects the uncertainty of earnings. General qualifications are found to increase the earnings risk, vocational one to reduce it. More education, especially tertiary education, yields a high earnings premium but is associated with the highest earnings uncertainty. Women enjoy a higher earnings premium for education than men and though they face overall a higher earnings uncertainty, they can - more than men - reduce this risk by investing in their education.

Suggested Citation

  • Lauer, Charlotte, 2004. "Education, Gender and Earnings in France and Germany: Level and Dispersion Effects," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-54, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:2192
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Lauer, Charlotte, 2003. "Education and Unemployment: A French-German Comparison," ZEW Discussion Papers 03-34, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    2. William W. Gould & Jeffrey Pitblado & Brian Poi, 2010. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation with Stata," Stata Press books, StataCorp LP, edition 4, number ml4, December.
    3. Ch. LAUER & A.M. WEBER, 2003. "Employment of Mothers after Childbirth : A French-German Comparison," Working Papers ERMES 0309, ERMES, University Paris 2.
    4. Pereira, Pedro Telhado & Martins, Pedro Silva, 2000. "Does Education Reduce Wage Inequality? Quantile Regressions Evidence from Fifteen European Countries," FEUNL Working Paper Series wp379, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.
    5. Lauer, Charlotte, 2001. "Educational attainment: a French-German comparison," ZEW Dokumentationen 01-02, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    6. James J. Heckman & Lance J. Lochner & Petra E. Todd, 2003. "Fifty Years of Mincer Earnings Regressions," NBER Working Papers 9732, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Hildegard Brauns & Walter Müller & Susanne Steinmann, 1997. "Educational Expansion and Returns to Education. A Comparative Study on Germany, France, the UK, and Hungary," MZES Working Papers 23, MZES.
    8. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    9. Card, David, 2001. "Estimating the Return to Schooling: Progress on Some Persistent Econometric Problems," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(5), pages 1127-1160, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    education; earnings; heteroscedasticity;

    JEL classification:

    • J3 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs
    • I2 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education

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