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Abwärtsmobilität und ihre Folgen: Die Entwicklung von Wohlbefinden und Partizipation nach Verarmung

  • Böhnke, Petra
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    Die These, dass Armut negativ auf das Wohlbefinden und die Partizipationschancen der Betroffenen wirkt, ist populär und weithin anerkannt. Ursache und Wirkung, Entwicklungsprozesse und erklärende Mechanismen sind aber bislang wenig untersucht worden. Welche Konsequenzen hat Armut für kulturelle, politische und zivilgesellschaftliche Partizipation sowie für subjektives Wohlbefinden in Deutschland zwischen 1984 und 2006? Mit Hilfe von soziologischen und sozialpsychologischen Erklärungsansätzen wird geprüft, ob und in welcher Weise Armut weitere Benachteiligungen nach sich zieht (Kumulation). Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Armut zu Einbußen beim Wohlbefinden und zu rückläufiger Partizipation führt, obwohl mehrheitlich eine selektive, schon vorher benachteiligte Gruppe verarmt. Finanzielle Restriktionen werden nicht mit sozialen und kulturellen Aktivitäten kompensiert, und es gibt nur schwache Hinweise auf Anpassungsprozesse. Die Reaktionen unterscheiden sich nach betrachtetem Lebensbereich und vorangegangener Einkommensposition. Für Mittelschicht-Absteiger sind negative Effekte auf das Wohlbefinden ausgeprägter. Politisches Interesse reagiert nicht auf Armutserfahrungen. Vergleichsprozesse und stabile Persönlichkeitseigenschaften spielen als Erklärungen eine wichtige Rolle.

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    Paper provided by Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) in its series Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Inequality and Social Integration with number SP I 2009-205.

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    Date of creation: 2009
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:wzbisi:spi2009205
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    1. DiTella, Rafael & MacCulloch, Robert & Oswald, Andrew J., 2001. "Preferences over inflation and unemployment: Evidence from surveys of happiness," ZEI Working Papers B 03-2001, ZEI - Center for European Integration Studies, University of Bonn.
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    5. Bruce Headey, 2007. "The Set-Point Theory of Well-Being Needs Replacing: On the Brink of a Scientific Revolution?," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 753, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    6. Andrew E. Clark & Paul Frijters & Michael A. Shields, 2008. "Relative Income, Happiness, and Utility: An Explanation for the Easterlin Paradox and Other Puzzles," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 46(1), pages 95-144, March.
    7. Winkelmann, Liliana & Winkelmann, Rainer, 1998. "Why Are the Unemployed So Unhappy? Evidence from Panel Data," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 65(257), pages 1-15, February.
    8. Jan Goebel & Markus M. Grabka & Peter Krause & Martin Kroh & Rainer Pischner & Ingo Sieber & Martin Spieß, 2008. "Mikrodaten, Gewichtung und Datenstruktur der Längsschnittstudie Sozio-oekonomisches Panel (SOEP)," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 77(3), pages 77-109.
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