IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Multi-Asset Portfolio Optimization and Out-of-Sample Performance: An Evaluation of Black-Litterman, Mean Variance and Naïve Diversification Approaches

  • Wolff, Dominik
  • Bessler, Wolfgang
  • Opfer, Heiko
Registered author(s):

    The Black-Litterman (BL) model aims to enhance asset allocation decisions by overcoming the weaknesses of standard mean-variance (MV) portfolio optimization. In this study we implement the BL model in a multi-asset portfolio context. Using an investment universe of global stock indices, bonds, and commodities, we empirically test the out-of-sample portfolio performance of BL optimized portfolios and compare the results to mean-variance (MV), minimum-variance, and naïve diversified portfolios (1/N-rule) for the period from January 1993 to December 2011. We find that BL optimized portfolios perform better than MV and na ve diversified portfolios in terms of out-of-sample Sharpe ratios even after controlling for different levels of risk aversion, realistic investment constraints, and transaction costs. Interestingly, the BL approach is well suited to alleviate most of the shortcomings of MV optimization. The resulting portfolios are less risky, are more diversified across asset classes, and have less extreme asset allocations. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the outperformance of the BL model is due to the consideration of the reliability of return estimates and a lower portfolio turnover.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/62020/1/VfS_2012_pid_894.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Paper provided by Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association in its series Annual Conference 2012 (Goettingen): New Approaches and Challenges for the Labor Market of the 21st Century with number 62020.

    as
    in new window

    Length:
    Date of creation: 2012
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:zbw:vfsc12:62020
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.socialpolitik.org/
    Email:


    More information through EDIRC

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Wolfgang Bessler & Julian Holler & Philipp Kurmann, 2012. "Hedge funds and optimal asset allocation: Bayesian expectations and spanning tests," Financial Markets and Portfolio Management, Springer, vol. 26(1), pages 109-141, March.
    2. Lubos Pástor, 2000. "Portfolio Selection and Asset Pricing Models," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(1), pages 179-223, 02.
    3. Kirby, Chris & Ostdiek, Barbara, 2012. "It’s All in the Timing: Simple Active Portfolio Strategies that Outperform Naïve Diversification," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 47(02), pages 437-467, June.
    4. Geert Bekaert & Michael S. Urias, 1995. "Diversification, Integration and Emerging Market Closed-End Funds," NBER Working Papers 4990, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Richard H. Thaler & Shlomo Benartzi, 2001. "Naive Diversification Strategies in Defined Contribution Saving Plans," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(1), pages 79-98, March.
    6. Sanford J. Grossman & Zhongquan Zhou, 1993. "Optimal Investment Strategies For Controlling Drawdowns," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 3(3), pages 241-276.
    7. Lubos Pastor & Robert F. Stambaugh, 1999. "Comparing Asset Pricing Models: An Investment Perspective," NBER Working Papers 7284, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Giovanni Petrella, 2005. "Are Euro Area Small Cap Stocks an Asset Class? Evidence from Mean-Variance Spanning Tests," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 11(2), pages 229-253.
    9. Jorion, Philippe, 1986. "Bayes-Stein Estimation for Portfolio Analysis," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 21(03), pages 279-292, September.
    10. Ferreira, Miguel A. & Santa-Clara, Pedro, 2011. "Forecasting stock market returns: The sum of the parts is more than the whole," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(3), pages 514-537, June.
    11. Daskalaki, Charoula & Skiadopoulos, George, 2011. "Should investors include commodities in their portfolios after all? New evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 2606-2626, October.
    12. Harry Markowitz, 1952. "Portfolio Selection," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 7(1), pages 77-91, 03.
    13. Galema, Rients & Lensink, Robert & Spierdijk, Laura, 2011. "International diversification and Microfinance," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 507-515, April.
    14. Jorion, Philippe, 1985. "International Portfolio Diversification with Estimation Risk," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 58(3), pages 259-78, July.
    15. Javed Iqbal & Robert Brooks & Don U.A. Galagedera, 2008. "Testing Conditional Asset Pricing Models: An Emerging Market Perspective," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 3/08, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    16. Gerald R. Jensen & Robert R. Johnson & Jeffrey M. Mercer, 2000. "Efficient use of commodity futures in diversified portfolios," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(5), pages 489-506, 05.
    17. Chan, Louis K C & Karceski, Jason & Lakonishok, Josef, 1999. "On Portfolio Optimization: Forecasting Covariances and Choosing the Risk Model," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 12(5), pages 937-74.
    18. Gerald R. Jensen & Jeffrey M. Mercer, 2003. "New Evidence on Optimal Asset Allocation," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 38(3), pages 435-454, 08.
    19. Chiou, Wan-Jiun Paul & Lee, Alice C. & Chang, Chiu-Chi A., 2009. "Do investors still benefit from international diversification with investment constraints?," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 448-483, May.
    20. Victor DeMiguel & Lorenzo Garlappi & Raman Uppal, 2009. "Optimal Versus Naive Diversification: How Inefficient is the 1-N Portfolio Strategy?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(5), pages 1915-1953, May.
    21. Cheung, C. Sherman & Miu, Peter, 2010. "Diversification benefits of commodity futures," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 451-474, December.
    22. Louis K.C. Chan & Jason Karceski & Josef Lakonishok, 1999. "On Portfolio Optimization: Forecasting Covariances and Choosing the Risk Model," NBER Working Papers 7039, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    23. Best, Michael J & Grauer, Robert R, 1991. "On the Sensitivity of Mean-Variance-Efficient Portfolios to Changes in Asset Means: Some Analytical and Computational Results," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 4(2), pages 315-42.
    24. Pflug, Georg Ch. & Pichler, Alois & Wozabal, David, 2012. "The 1/N investment strategy is optimal under high model ambiguity," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 410-417.
    25. Nijman, T.E. & de Roon, F.A. & Werker, B.J.M., 2001. "Testing for Mean-Variance spanning with short sales constraints and transaction costs : The case of emerging markets," Other publications TiSEM f4a3551a-d7ae-4c22-8813-b, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:vfsc12:62020. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (ZBW - German National Library of Economics)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.