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Livestock in Central Asia: From rural subsistence to engine of growth?

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  • Robinson, Sarah

Abstract

This paper presents an overview of the livestock sector in Central Asia using national statistics and field survey data. Growing consumer demand and underused pasture reserves suggest significant potential for growth. But production is fragmented between many small household producers with poor access to land, family farms and very large (but often inefficient) enterprises. Few producers can supply quality livestock products at high volumes, leading some meat and milk processors to favour imported produce. Peri-urban milk suppliers may participate in value chains through wholesalers, but in remoter areas farms specialise in meat production, reliant on long chains of intermediaries. Only in Kazakhstan do international agreements, slaughter and animal health arrangements favour export prospects in the near future. Since the 1990s, winter fodder deficits have limited livestock productivity. Domestic fodder production is increasing in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, but is hindered by state order policies in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Dairy producers close to markets often provide high quality fodder, whilst need for supplements is lower amongst mobile meat producers with winter pasture. Amongst the latter, a class of large commercial operations is emerging, whilst smaller farms lacking access to grazing resources find it harder to grow. Government policy often magnifies differences between small and large producers, for example through conditions for subsidies or land access procedures. Subsidised credit is available in most republics but uptake is limited by effective demand. Improved public services, better support for service cooperatives and decentralised processing and slaughter facilities would help producers increase value from their livestock.

Suggested Citation

  • Robinson, Sarah, 2020. "Livestock in Central Asia: From rural subsistence to engine of growth?," IAMO Discussion Papers 193, Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:iamodp:193
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Lerman, Zvi, 2008. "Agricultural Development in Uzbekistan: The Effect of Ongoing Reforms," Discussion Papers 37945, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Agricultural Economics and Management.
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    3. Akramov, Kamiljon T. & Omuraliev, Nurbek, 2009. "Institutional change, rural services, and agricultural performance in Kyrgyzstan:," IFPRI discussion papers 904, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    4. Sandra Broka & Åsa Giertz & Garry Christensen & Debra Rasmussen & Alexei Morgounov & Turi Fileccia & Rhoda Rubaiza, 2016. "Kazakhstan Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment," World Bank Publications - Reports 23763, The World Bank Group.
    5. Umarov, Khojamahmad, 2019. "Сектор Животноводства В Таджикистане: Проблемы Устойчивого И Сбалансированного Развития [Livestock sector in Tajikistan: Problems of sustainable and balanced development]," IAMO Discussion Papers 190, Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO).
    6. Lerman, Zvi & Sedik, David J., 2008. "The Economic Effects of Land Reform in Central Asia: The Case of Tajikistan," Discussion Papers 46249, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Agricultural Economics and Management.
    7. Nodir Djanibekov & Kristof van Assche & Ihtiyor Bobojonov & John Lamers, 2012. "Farm Restructuring and Land Consolidation in Uzbekistan: New Farms with Old Barriers," Europe-Asia Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 64(6), pages 1101-1126.
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    Cited by:

    1. Robinson, Sarah & Bozayeva, Zhanyl & Mukhamedova, Nozilakhon & Djanibekov, Nodir & Petrick, Martin, 2021. "Ranchers or pastoralists? Farm size, specialisation and production strategy amongst cattle farmers in south-eastern Kazakhstan," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics.

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    Keywords

    Central Asia; livestock; marketing; fodder; pasture; policy;
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