Estimating the Effects of Friendship Networks on Health Behaviors of Adolescents
Statistical methods have been developed for cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) of cluster randomised trials (CRTs) where baseline covariates are balanced. However, CRTs may have systematic differences in individual and cluster-level covariates between the treatment groups. This paper presents three methods to adjust for imbalances in observed covariates: seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) with a robust standard error, a â€˜two-stageâ€™ bootstrap (TSB) approach combined with SUR, and multilevel models (MLMs). We consider the methods in a CEA of a CRT with covariate imbalance, unequal cluster sizes and a prognostic relationship that varied by treatment group. The cost-effectiveness results differed according to the approach for covariate adjustment. Our simulation study assessed the relative performance of methods for addressing systematic imbalance in baseline covariates. The simulation extended the case study and considered scenarios with: different levels of confounding, cluster size variation and few clusters. Performance was reported as bias, root mean squared error and confidence interval (CI) coverage of the incremental net benefit. Even with low levels of confounding, unadjusted methods were biased, but all adjusted methods were unbiased. MLMs performed well across all settings, and unlike the other methods, reported CI coverage close to nominal levels even when with few clusters of unequal sizes.
|Date of creation:||Jul 2011|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: HEDG/HERC, Department of Economics and Related Studies, University of York, York, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom|
Phone: (0)1904 323776
Fax: (0)1904 323759
Web page: http://www.york.ac.uk/economics/postgrad/herc/hedg/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jones A.M & Rice N, 2009. "Econometric Evaluation of Health Policies," Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers 09/09, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York.
- Thompson, Simon G. & Nixon, Richard M. & Grieve, Richard, 2006. "Addressing the issues that arise in analysing multicentre cost data, with application to a multinational study," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 1015-1028, November.
- Guido W. Imbens, 2004.
"Nonparametric Estimation of Average Treatment Effects Under Exogeneity: A Review,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 86(1), pages 4-29, February.
- Guido W. Imbens, 2003. "Nonparametric Estimation of Average Treatment Effects under Exogeneity: A Review," NBER Technical Working Papers 0294, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jeffrey S. Hoch & Andrew H. Briggs & Andrew R. Willan, 2002. "Something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue: a framework for the marriage of health econometrics and cost-effectiveness analysis," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(5), pages 415-430.
- Richard M. Nixon & Simon G. Thompson, 2005. "Methods for incorporating covariate adjustment, subgroup analysis and between-centre differences into cost-effectiveness evaluations," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(12), pages 1217-1229.
- Anirban Basu & James J. Heckman & Salvador Navarro-Lozano & Sergio Urzua, 2007. "Use of instrumental variables in the presence of heterogeneity and self-selection: an application to treatments of breast cancer patients," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(11), pages 1133-1157.
- Imbens, Guido W. & Wooldridge, Jeffrey M., 2008.
"Recent Developments in the Econometrics of Program Evaluation,"
IZA Discussion Papers
3640, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Guido W. Imbens & Jeffrey M. Wooldridge, 2009. "Recent Developments in the Econometrics of Program Evaluation," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 47(1), pages 5-86, March.
- Guido Imbens & Jeffrey Wooldridge, 2008. "Recent developments in the econometrics of program evaluation," CeMMAP working papers CWP24/08, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Guido M. Imbens & Jeffrey M. Wooldridge, 2008. "Recent Developments in the Econometrics of Program Evaluation," NBER Working Papers 14251, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Wooldridge, Jeffrey M. & Imbens, Guido, 2009. "Recent Developments in the Econometrics of Program Evaluation," Scholarly Articles 3043416, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- James R. Carpenter & Harvey Goldstein & Jon Rasbash, 2003. "A novel bootstrap procedure for assessing the relationship between class size and achievement," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series C, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 52(4), pages 431-443.
- Kosuke Imai & Gary King & Elizabeth A. Stuart, 2008. "Misunderstandings between experimentalists and observationalists about causal inference," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 171(2), pages 481-502.
- Jeffrey M. Wooldridge, 2001.
"Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data,"
MIT Press Books,
The MIT Press,
edition 1, volume 1, number 0262232197, June.
- Jeffrey M Wooldridge, 2010. "Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 2, volume 1, number 0262232588, June.
- Juxin Liu & Paul Gustafson, 2008. "On Average Predictive Comparisons and Interactions," International Statistical Review, International Statistical Institute, vol. 76(3), pages 419-432, December.
- Cameron,A. Colin & Trivedi,Pravin K., 2005. "Microeconometrics," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521848053, 1.
- Claxton, Karl, 1999. "The irrelevance of inference: a decision-making approach to the stochastic evaluation of health care technologies," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 341-364, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:yor:hectdg:11/14. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jane Rawlings)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.