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Long Run Properties of Technical Efficiency in the U.S. Airline Industry

  • Ila M. Semenick Alam
  • Robin C. Sickles

This paper takes an innovative approach to test the relationship between technical efficiency and the market structure hypothesis which states that competitive pressure enhances relative efficiency. DEA and FDH time series of technical efficiency scores, for a panel of 11 US airlines observed quarterly during 1970-1990, are examined for cointegration and convergence. For almost all firm pairs (>90% for both efficiency measures), the null hypothesis of cointegration cannot be rejected; meanwhile, the null of no cointegration is rejected for approximately one-third of the firm pairs. Furthermore, convergence tests document less dispersion in firm performance over time. These results indicate that the scores move together and, in fact, the firms are becoming more alike one another in terms of efficiency. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG - (Langfristige Eigenschaften der technischen Effizienz in der US-Luftfahrtindustrie) In diesem Beitrag wird ein innovativer Ansatz entwickelt, um die Beziehung zwischen technischer Effizienz und der Marktstrukturhypothese zu überprüfen, die besagt, daß Wettbewerbsdruck die relative Effizienz erhöht. Die DEA- und FDH-Zeitreihen der technischen Effizienz für ein Panel-Datensatz von 11 US-Fluggesellschaften, die während der Periode 1970 bis 1990 beobachtet wurden, werden im Hinblick auf Kointegration und Konvergenz analysiert. Für nahezu alle Unternehmenspaare (mehr als 90% bei beiden Effizienzmaßen) kann die Nullhypothese der Kointegration nicht zurückgewiesen werden, wo hingegen die Nullhypothese, daß keine Kointegration vorliegt, für etwa ein Drittel der Unternehmenspaare zurückgewiesen wird. Außerdem zeigt der Konvergenztest, daß die Streuung des Unternehmenserfolgs im Zeitablauf abnimmt. Die Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, daß die Effizienzwerte sich auf einander zu bewegen und daß in der Tat, die Unternehmen im Hinblick auf Effizienz sich immer ähnlicher werden.

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Paper provided by Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG) in its series CIG Working Papers with number FS IV 97-25.

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Length: 19 pages
Date of creation: Oct 1997
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wzb:wzebiv:fsiv97-25
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  1. Fare, Rolf & Shawna Grosskopf & Mary Norris & Zhongyang Zhang, 1994. "Productivity Growth, Technical Progress, and Efficiency Change in Industrialized Countries," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(1), pages 66-83, March.
  2. Good, David H. & Nadiri, M. Ishaq & Sickles, Robin C., 1989. "The Structure Of Production, Technical Change And Efficiency In A Multiproduct Industry: An Application To U.S. Airlines," Working Papers 89-14, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
  3. Reifschneider, David & Stevenson, Rodney, 1991. "Systematic Departures from the Frontier: A Framework for the Analysis of Firm Inefficiency," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 32(3), pages 715-23, August.
  4. Baumol, William J, 1986. "Productivity Growth, Convergence, and Welfare: What the Long-run Data Show," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1072-85, December.
  5. Baltagi, Badi H & Griffin, James M & Rich, Daniel P, 1995. "Airline Deregulation: The Cost Pieces of the Puzzle," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 36(1), pages 245-60, February.
  6. Seiford, Lawrence M. & Thrall, Robert M., 1990. "Recent developments in DEA : The mathematical programming approach to frontier analysis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1-2), pages 7-38.
  7. Yin-Wong Cheung & Francis X. Diebold, 1993. "On maximum-likelihood estimation of the differencing parameter of fractionally integrated noise with unknown mean," Working Papers 93-5, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  8. Allen N. Berger & Timothy H. Hannan, 1994. "The efficiency cost of market power in the banking industry: a test of the "quiet life" and related hypotheses," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 94-36, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  9. Shin, Yongcheol, 1994. "A Residual-Based Test of the Null of Cointegration Against the Alternative of No Cointegration," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(01), pages 91-115, March.
  10. Kwiatkowski, D. & Phillips, P.C.B. & Schmidt, P., 1990. "Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of Unit Root : How Sure are we that Economic Time Series have a Unit Root?," Papers 8905, Michigan State - Econometrics and Economic Theory.
  11. Tulkens, Henry & Vanden Eeckaut, Philippe, 1995. "Non-parametric efficiency, progress and regress measures for panel data: Methodological aspects," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 80(3), pages 474-499, February.
  12. repec:cup:etheor:v:10:y:1994:i:1:p:95-115 is not listed on IDEAS
  13. Atkinson, Scott E & Cornwell, Christopher, 1994. "Parametric Estimation of Technical and Allocative Inefficiency with Panel Data," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 35(1), pages 231-43, February.
  14. Cornwell, Christopher & Schmidt, Peter & Sickles, Robin C., 1990. "Production frontiers with cross-sectional and time-series variation in efficiency levels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1-2), pages 185-200.
  15. Button, Kenneth J & Weyman-Jones, Thomas G, 1992. "Ownership Structure, Institutional Organization and Measured X-Efficiency," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(2), pages 439-45, May.
  16. Singal, Vijay, 1996. "Airline Mergers and Competition: An Integration of Stock and Product Price Effects," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 69(2), pages 233-68, April.
  17. Sickles, Robin C., 1985. "A nonlinear multivariate error components analysis of technology and specific factor productivity growth with an application to the U.S. Airlines," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 61-78, January.
  18. Caves, Douglas W & Christensen, Laurits R & Diewert, W Erwin, 1982. "Multilateral Comparisons of Output, Input, and Productivity Using Superlative Index Numbers," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 92(365), pages 73-86, March.
  19. Charnes, A. & Cooper, W. W. & Rhodes, E., 1978. "Measuring the efficiency of decision making units," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 2(6), pages 429-444, November.
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