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Land Use Change in Indonesia


  • Stefano Pagiola

    (World Bank)


With an estimated loss of up to 20 million ha of forest over the past decade, deforestation in Indonesia has come to the forefront of global environmental concerns. Indonesia is one of the most important areas of tropical forests worldwide. In addition to providing a multitude of benefits locally, including both products and services, these forests are also of global importance because of their biodiversity and the carbon they sequester. Despite the benefits they provide, Indonesia’s forests have been under considerable threat in past decades, and the extent of forest cover has declined considerably. This paper takes advantage of new data on the extent and distribution of forest cover change in Indonesia to examine its causes and effects. The paper begins by summarizing the long-term trends in land use change in Indonesia, and the new data on loss of forest cover during the period 1985-1997. It then discusses why this land use change is likely to be undesirable in many cases. Land use change can at times be beneficial, but there are good reasons to believe that current patterns of land use change in Indonesia are in fact socially sub-optimal. The paper then reviews the incentives faced by the major actors in land use change—loggers, estate crop producers, and smallholders—and the reasons their decisions concerning land use change, while privately optimal, are likely to be socially sub-optimal. It also briefly examines the effect that the East Asian financial crisis has had on these incentives. Particular attention is paid to mangrove forests, because of their important ecological role.

Suggested Citation

  • Stefano Pagiola, 2004. "Land Use Change in Indonesia," Others 0405007, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpot:0405007
    Note: Type of Document - pdf; pages: 31. PDF of working paper

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Angelsen, Arild, 1995. "Shifting cultivation and "deforestation": A study from Indonesia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(10), pages 1713-1729, October.
    2. Hamilton, Kirk & Clemens, Michael, 1999. "Genuine Savings Rates in Developing Countries," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 13(2), pages 333-356, May.
    3. Pagiola, S. & Kellenberg, J. & Vidaeus, L. & Srivastava, J., 1997. "Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Agricultural Development. Toward Good Practice," Papers 15, World Bank - The World Bank Environment Paper.
    4. Stefano Pagiola, 2004. "Deforestation and Land Use Changes Induced by the East Asian Economic Crisis," Others 0405006, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Stefano Pagiola, 2004. "Economic Analysis of Rural Land Administration Projects," Others 0405009, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Edward B. Barbier, 1990. "The Farm-Level Economics of Soil Conservation: The Uplands of Java," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 66(2), pages 199-211.
    7. Poppele, Jessica & Sumarto, Sudarno & Pritchett, Lant, 1999. "Social Impacts of the Indonesian Crisis: New Data and Policy Implications," MPRA Paper 60931, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 15 Feb 2000.
    8. Edward B. Barbier & Nancy Bockstael & Joanne C. Burgess & Ivar Strand, 1995. "The Linkages between the Timber Trade and Tropical Deforestation—Indonesia," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(3), pages 411-442, May.
    9. Frankenberg, E. & Thomas, D. & Beegle, K., 1999. "The Real Costs of Indonesia's Economic Crisis: Preliminary Findings from the Indonesia Family Life Surveys," Papers 99-04, RAND - Labor and Population Program.
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    Cited by:

    1. Gernot Pehnelt & Christoph Vietze, 2011. "Recalculating Default Values for Palm Oil," Jena Economic Research Papers 2011-037, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.

    More about this item


    Deforestation; Land Use; Biodiversity; Environmental Services; Indonesia;

    JEL classification:

    • P - Economic Systems
    • Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics
    • Z - Other Special Topics

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