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The Liquidity Effect: Testing Identification Conditions Under Time-Varying Conditional Volatility


  • Michel Normandin


  • Louis Phaneuf



In the recent SVAR literature, the liquidity effect has been studied by imposing a variety of identifying restrictions required under the assumption that the SVAR fundamental disturbances are homoscedastic. Using typical SVAR processes, we first show that this assumption is not supported by the data and that the SVAR residuals are not characterized by common conditional scedastic structures. Under time-varying conditional volatility of residuals, we are then able to formally test typical sets of restrictions that have been imposed in previous studies. Our results indicate that to obtain a well characterized liquidity effect, one must measure monetary policy shocks as innovations in the Federal funds rate. This paper is available at Additional tables are at The whole WP list is at

Suggested Citation

  • Michel Normandin & Louis Phaneuf, 1996. "The Liquidity Effect: Testing Identification Conditions Under Time-Varying Conditional Volatility," Econometrics 9607001, EconWPA.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpem:9607001
    Note: 25+7 pages, 2 Postscript files

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Christopher A. Sims, 1986. "Are forecasting models usable for policy analysis?," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Win, pages 2-16.
    2. Bernanke, Ben S & Blinder, Alan S, 1992. "The Federal Funds Rate and the Channels of Monetary Transmission," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(4), pages 901-921, September.
    3. Christopher A. Sims & Tao Zha, 1999. "Error Bands for Impulse Responses," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(5), pages 1113-1156, September.
    4. Eichenbaum, Martin, 1992. "'Interpreting the macroeconomic time series facts: The effects of monetary policy' : by Christopher Sims," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 1001-1011, June.
    5. Lawrence J. Christiano & Martin Eichenbaum, 1991. "Identification and the Liquidity Effect of a Monetary Policy Shock," NBER Working Papers 3920, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Sims, Christopher A., 1992. "Interpreting the macroeconomic time series facts : The effects of monetary policy," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 975-1000, June.
    7. Leeper, Eric M. & Gordon, David B., 1992. "In search of the liquidity effect," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 341-369, June.
    8. Adrian R. Pagan & John C. Robertson, 1995. "Resolving the liquidity effect," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue May, pages 33-54.
    9. Ben S. Bernanke, 1990. "On the predictive power of interest rates and interest rate spreads," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue Nov, pages 51-68.
    10. Engle, Robert F & Susmel, Raul, 1993. "Common Volatility in International Equity Markets," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 11(2), pages 167-176, April.
    11. Gordon, David B & Leeper, Eric M, 1994. "The Dynamic Impacts of Monetary Policy: An Exercise in Tentative Identification," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(6), pages 1228-1247, December.
    12. Sims, Christopher A & Stock, James H & Watson, Mark W, 1990. "Inference in Linear Time Series Models with Some Unit Roots," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(1), pages 113-144, January.
    13. Sentana, Enrique & Fiorentini, Gabriele, 2001. "Identification, estimation and testing of conditionally heteroskedastic factor models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 102(2), pages 143-164, June.
    14. Davidson, Russell & MacKinnon, James G., 1993. "Estimation and Inference in Econometrics," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195060119.
    15. James Dunn, 1973. "A note on a sufficiency condition for uniqueness of a restricted factor matrix," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 38(1), pages 141-143, March.
    16. King, Mervyn & Sentana, Enrique & Wadhwani, Sushil, 1994. "Volatility and Links between National Stock Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(4), pages 901-933, July.
    17. McCallum, Bennett T., 1983. "A reconsideration of Sims' evidence concerning monetarism," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 13(2-3), pages 167-171.
    18. Strongin, Steven, 1995. "The identification of monetary policy disturbances explaining the liquidity puzzle," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 463-497, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Caporale, Guglielmo Maria & Cipollini, Andrea & Demetriades, Panicos O., 2005. "Monetary policy and the exchange rate during the Asian crisis: identification through heteroscedasticity," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 39-53, February.
    2. Mohamed Benbouziane & Abdelhak Benamar & Mustapha Djennas, 2010. "The Liquidity Effect in Algeria and Morocco: A Multivariate Threshold Autoregressive Investigation," Working Papers 525, Economic Research Forum, revised 06 Jan 2010.
    3. Shen, Chung-Hua & Chiang, Thomas Chi-Nan, 1999. "Retrieving the vanishing liquidity effect--a threshold vector autoregressive model," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 259-277, May.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy


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