Measuring social embeddedness : how to identify social networks in science-industry partnerships ?
Social embeddedness appears to be a promising way to analyze knowledge collaborations, notably to better understand their build up and their spatial patterns. Nevertheless, measurement problems and an over-territorialized conception of the notion exist. When studying the formation of these partnerships, authors have underlined the embeddedness of innovators in social ties as a major factor (Walker, Kogut, 1994 ; Zucker et al., 1998); others have shed light on institutional devices (Ponomariov, Boardman, 2010 ; Eom, Lee, 2010), but few have integrated both relational and institutional forms of embeddedness. Moreover, â€œembeddedness is mostly conceived of as a spatial concept related to the local and regional levels of analysisâ€ (Hess, 2004): scholars argued (Moka et al., 2007) and showed (Fischer, 1982 ; Wellman, 1996; Grossetti, 2002) that social ties easily build-up in the neighborhood. They thus conclude social embeddedness favors local partnerships without demonstrating it really. Finally at the empirical level, precise data are missing to identify social embeddedness (Giuri, Mariani, 2007). Therefore, regarding the existing studies, â€œthe analytical scales and the spatiality of embeddedness needs to be scrutinizedâ€ (Hess, 2004) theoretically and empirically to determine â€œwho is embedded, in what and what is so spatial about it ?â€ (Pike et al., 2000). We propose here to address this deficit thanks to the formulation of a method robust enough. In this perspective, an analytical framework which does not postulate the social network hegemony is needed. We realized further theoretical refinements by introducing the concept of Â« coordination resources Â» to indicate modalities that permit connections between actors without using interpersonal ties. To identify embeddedness effects, we then present an original method essentially based on interviews. We use it to a group of 264 cases of science-industry collaborations realized in France. Several results are revealed thanks to statistical and econometric treatments. We reaffirm the major weigh of social embeddedness in the build-up of partnerships and the complementary role of coordination resources. Social embeddedness appears to be independent from the partners features. It nevertheless impacts the geography of the partnership although it is not possible to associate systematically social embeddedness and local collaborations.
|Date of creation:||Sep 2011|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.ersa.org
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Franz Tödtling & Patrick Lehner & Alexander Kaufmann, 2008. "Do Different Types of Innovation Rely on Specific Kinds of Knowledge Interactions?," SRE-Disc sre-disc-2008_01, Institute for Multilevel Governance and Development, Department of Socioeconomics, Vienna University of Economics and Business.
- Nooteboom, B. & Gilsing, V.A. & Vanhaverbeke, W.P.M. & Duijsters, G.M. & Oord, A., 2006.
"Network Embeddedness and the Exploration of Novel Technologies : Technological Distance, Betweenness Centrality and Density,"
2006-32, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Gilsing, Victor & Nooteboom, Bart & Vanhaverbeke, Wim & Duysters, Geert & van den Oord, Ad, 2008. "Network embeddedness and the exploration of novel technologies: Technological distance, betweenness centrality and density," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(10), pages 1717-1731, December.
- Gilsing, V.A. & Nooteboom, B. & van Haverbeke, W.P.M. & Duijsters, G.M. & Oord, A., 2008. "Network embeddedness and the exploration of novel technologies : Technological distance, betweenness centrality and density," Other publications TiSEM 762e80f1-0adc-4184-b1be-9, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
- Victor Gilsing & Bart Noteboom & Wim Vanhaverbeke & Geert Duysters & Ad van Noord, 2006. "Network embeddedness and the exploration of novel technologies: technological distance, betweenness centrality and density," Working Papers 06-08, Eindhoven Center for Innovation Studies, revised Apr 2006.
- D'Este, P. & Patel, P., 2007. "University-industry linkages in the UK: What are the factors underlying the variety of interactions with industry?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 1295-1313, November.
- Bozeman, Barry & Mangematin, Vincent, 2004. "Editor's introduction: building and deploying scientific and technical human capital," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 565-568, May.
- Carayol, Nicolas, 2003. "Objectives, agreements and matching in science-industry collaborations: reassembling the pieces of the puzzle," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 887-908, June.
- repec:ner:tilbur:urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3159316 is not listed on IDEAS
- Elisa Giuliani & Andrea Morrison & Carlo Pietrobelli & Roberta Rabellotti, 2009.
"Why Do Researchers Collaborate With Industry? An Analysis Of The Wine Sector In Chile, South Africa And Italy,"
0109, CREI Università degli Studi Roma Tre, revised 2009.
- Elisa Giuliani & Andrea Morrison & Carlo Pietrobelli & Roberta Rabellotti, 2008. "Why Do Researchers Collaborate with Industry? An analysis of the wine sector in Chile, South Africa and Italy," KITeS Working Papers 217, KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised May 2008.
- Holger Graf & Tobias Henning, 2006.
"Public Research in Regional Networks of Innovators: A Comparative Study of Four East-German Regions,"
Jenaer Schriften zur Wirtschaftswissenschaft
19/2006, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
- Holger Graf & Tobias Henning, 2009. "Public Research in Regional Networks of Innovators: A Comparative Study of Four East German Regions," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(10), pages 1349-1368, December.
- Breschi, Stefano & Catalini, Christian, 2010. "Tracing the links between science and technology: An exploratory analysis of scientists' and inventors' networks," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 14-26, February.
- Jaffe, Adam B, 1989. "Real Effects of Academic Research," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(5), pages 957-70, December.
- Richard Swedberg, 2007.
"Introduction to Principles of Economic Sociology
[Principles of Economic Sociology]," Introductory Chapters, Princeton University Press.
- Marie Ferru, 2010. "Formation Process and Geography of Science-Industry Partnerships: The Case of the University of Poitiers," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(6), pages 531-549.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa11p971. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Gunther Maier)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.