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Ghana's cocoa pricing policy

Author

Listed:
  • Bateman, Merrill J.
  • Meeraus, Alexander
  • Newbery, David M.
  • Okyere, William Asenso
  • O'Mara, Gerald T.

Abstract

Ghana's cocoa production has declined in the past 25 years from half the world market share to about one tenth of the market. This has been partly due to policies that overvalued the domestic currency and heavily taxed cocoa exports. This study addresses the dilemma Ghana's government faces: how to provide enough producer incentives to stimulate the cocoa exports Ghana need for foreign exchange while maintaining the government revenues needed to avoid unmanagable fiscal deficits. The key may be identifying acceptable revenue alternatives to cocoa export taxes. Among the conclusions reached in this study are: (a) the exchange rate regime should be liberalized; (b) the government should explore shifting taxes from cocoa producers to all consumers by increasing taxes on appropriate consumer goods; (c) taxing cocoa farmers directly lowers their income, indirectly lowers the income of food producers, and transfers incomes from those farmers to food consumers, thereby worsening income distribution; (d) yearly cocoa buying price should always be set above 140 cedis (in 1987 prices) to stimulate growth; and (e) COCOBOD should terminate its marketing activities for coffee, and all taxes on coffee exports should cease.

Suggested Citation

  • Bateman, Merrill J. & Meeraus, Alexander & Newbery, David M. & Okyere, William Asenso & O'Mara, Gerald T., 1990. "Ghana's cocoa pricing policy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 429, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:429
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Diamond, Peter A & Mirrlees, James A, 1971. "Optimal Taxation and Public Production: I--Production Efficiency," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 61(1), pages 8-27, March.
    2. Braverman, Avishay & Hammer, Jeffrey S & Gron, Anne, 1987. "Multimarket Analysis of Agricultural Price Policies in an Operational Context: The Case of Cyprus," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 1(2), pages 337-356, January.
    3. Heady, Christopher J. & Mitra, Pradeep K., 1982. "Restricted redistributive taxation, shadow prices and trade policy," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 1-22, February.
    4. Deaton, A., 1988. "New Approaches To Household Survey Data From Developing Countries," Papers 139, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Development Studies.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Kolavalli, Shashidhara & Vigneri, Marcella & Maamah, Haruna & Poku, John, 2012. "The partially liberalized cocoa sector in Ghana: Producer price determination, quality control, and service provision," IFPRI discussion papers 1213, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    2. Angus Deaton, 1999. "Commodity Prices and Growth in Africa," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, pages 23-40.
    3. Takane, Tsutomu, 2000. "Incentives Embedded in Institutions: The Case of Share Contracts in Ghanaian Cocoa Production," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO), vol. 38(3), pages 374-397, September.
    4. Takamasa Akiyama, 1992. "Is there a case for an optimal export tax on perennial crops?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 854, The World Bank.

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