Trends in the education sector from 1993 - 98
Vietnam has achieved remarkably high rates of school enrollment and has maintained good social indicators (infant and under-five mortality rates, life expectancy, fertility rate, child nutrition, and access to basic services) compared to other countries with similar low income per capita. The author documents and analyzes changes in enrollment and education finance in Vietnam from 1993-98. Enrollment rates increased substantially, but the increases were not equally spread across different income groups, regions, gender, and ethnic groups. The higher the level of education, the larger the gap in school enrollment among different socioeconomic groups. Although school fees were no longer compulsory at the primary level, households paid for many other school-related items, such as books, uniforms, private tutors, lunch, and transportation. These costs are a significant financial burden on the poor. On the other hand, there is considerable variation in public spending per student across regions that, when coupled with variation in enrollment rates across regions, resulted in a not pro-poor public spending pattern, although public spending on primary education was neutral in 1998. Finally, the author investigates whether rates of return to education in the private wage sector changed in the 1990s. She concludes that returns to schooling increased substantially between 1992-93 and 1997-98, especially at the upper secondary education and university levels.
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- Glewwe, Paul & Jacoby, Hanan G., 2004. "Economic growth and the demand for education: is there a wealth effect?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 33-51, June.
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"Convexity and sheepskin effects in the human capital earnings function : recent evidence for Filipino men,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2566, The World Bank.
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