IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Precautionary saving from different sources of income - evidence from rural Pakistan


  • Adams, Richard H.


Few studies have tried to measure how households in a developing country save from each of the different income sources at their disposal. To help fill that gap, the Author uses five-year panel data to examine how households in rural Pakistan save from each of the seven separate sources of income. The author finds that households save from different sources of income at significantly different marginal rates. For example, the marginal propensity to save from external remittances (0.711) is much higher than that for rental income (0.085). As the precautionary model of saving suggests, the reasons for this relate to uncertainty: income that is more variable, tends to be saved at a higher marginal rate. Faced with incomplete capital, and credit markets, households in rural Pakistan save: for a rainy day"by putting away mainly those sources of income that are more variable, and uncertain.

Suggested Citation

  • Adams, Richard H., 2002. "Precautionary saving from different sources of income - evidence from rural Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2761, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2761

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bhalla, Surjit S., 1978. "The role of sources of income and investment opportunities in rural savings," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 259-281, September.
    2. Holbrook, Robert & Stafford, Frank P, 1971. "The Propensity to Consume Separate Types of Income: A Generalized Permanent Income Hypothesis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 39(1), pages 1-21, January.
    3. Gersovitz, Mark, 1988. "Saving and development," Handbook of Development Economics,in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 10, pages 381-424 Elsevier.
    4. Adams, Richard H, Jr, 1998. "Remittances, Investment, and Rural Asset Accumulation in Pakistan," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 47(1), pages 155-173, October.
    5. Bhalla, Surjit S, 1979. "Measurement Errors and the Permanent Income Hypothesis: Evidence from Rural India," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(3), pages 295-307, June.
    6. Christopher D. Carroll & Andrew A. Samwick, 1998. "How Important Is Precautionary Saving?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(3), pages 410-419, August.
    7. Christopher D. Carroll, 1991. "Buffer stock saving and the permanent income hypothesis," Working Paper Series / Economic Activity Section 114, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    8. Wolpin, Kenneth I, 1982. "A New Test of the Permanent Income Hypothesis: The Impact of Weather on the Income and Consumption of Farm Households in India," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 23(3), pages 583-594, October.
    9. Alderman, Harold, 1996. "Saving and economic shocks in rural Pakistan," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 343-365, December.
    10. Campbell, John Y, 1987. "Does Saving Anticipate Declining Labor Income? An Alternative Test of the Permanent Income Hypothesis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(6), pages 1249-1273, November.
    11. Bhalla, Surjit S, 1980. "The Measurement of Permanent Income and Its Application to Savings Behavior," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 88(4), pages 722-744, August.
    12. Adams, Richard H. Jr. & He, Jane J., 1995. "Sources of income inequality and poverty in rural Pakistan:," Research reports 102, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    13. Paxson, Christina H, 1992. "Using Weather Variability to Estimate the Response of Savings to Transitory Income in Thailand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(1), pages 15-33, March.
    14. Musgrove, Philip, 1979. "Permanent Household Income and Consumption in Urban South America," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(3), pages 355-368, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Davies, Simon & Easaw, Joshy & Ghoshray, Atanu, 2009. "Mental accounting and remittances: A study of rural Malawian households," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 321-334, June.
    2. Anjum Siddiqui & Abdul Waheed & Haider Mahmood, 2016. "Social and Macroeconomic Uncertainty and Private Savings: A Case Study of a Developing Economy," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 6(4), pages 1768-1777.
    3. Miguel D. Ramirez & Hari Sharma, 2009. "Remittances and Growth in Latin America: A Panel Unit Root and Panel Cointegration Analysis," Estudios Economicos de Desarrollo Internacional, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 9(1).
    4. World Bank, 2007. "Social Protection in Pakistan : Managing Household Risks and Vulnerability," World Bank Other Operational Studies 7660, The World Bank.
    5. X. Bonnet & H. Poncet, 2004. "Income composition and propensities to consume," Documents de Travail de la DESE - Working Papers of the DESE g2004-12, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, DESE.
    6. repec:dau:papers:123456789/4459 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. repec:taf:oxdevs:v:44:y:2016:i:4:p:458-478 is not listed on IDEAS


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2761. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.