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A regime - switching approach to studying speculative attacks : focus on European Monetary System crises

  • Peria, Maria Soledad Martinez
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    The author uses a regime switching framework to study speculative attacks against European Monetary System (EMS) currencies during 1979-93. She identifies speculative attacks by modeling exchange rates, reserves, and interest rates as time series subject to discrete regime shifts. She assumes two states:"tranquil"and"speculative."She models the probabilities of switching between states as a function of fundamentals and expectations. She concludes that: A) The switching models with time -varying transition probabilities capture most of the conventional episodes of speculative attacks. B) Speculative attacks do not always coincide with currency realignments. C) Both economic fundamentals and expectations determine the likelihood of switching from a period of tranquility to a speculative attack. The budget deficit appears to be an especially important factor driving the probability of switching to a speculative regime. Given the importance of anticipating and, wherever possible, avoiding crises, it might be useful to conduct forecasting exercises to determine whether the switching framework proposed here can be used to forecast crises in countries outside the sample. Because currency crises tend to occur simultaneously in two or more countries, it also might be useful to adapt the regime - switching framework to explore the role of contagion in explaining crises.

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    Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2132.

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    Date of creation: 30 Jun 1999
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    Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2132
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    1. Blanco, Herminio & Garber, Peter M, 1986. "Recurrent Devaluation and Speculative Attacks on the Mexican Peso," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(1), pages 148-66, February.
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    3. Barry Eichengreen, Andrew K. Rose, and Charles Wyplosz., 1995. "Speculative Attacks on Pegged Exchange Rates: An Empirical Exploration with Special Reference to the European Monetary System," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C95-046, University of California at Berkeley.
    4. Jeffrey A. Frankel & Andrew K. Rose, 1996. "Currency crashes in emerging markets: an empirical treatment," International Finance Discussion Papers 534, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
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    8. Reinhart, Carmen & Kaminsky, Graciela, 1999. "The twin crises: The causes of banking and balance of payments problems," MPRA Paper 14081, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Engel, Charles & Hamilton, James D, 1990. "Long Swings in the Dollar: Are They in the Data and Do Markets Know It?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(4), pages 689-713, September.
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    12. Chen, Zhaohui & Giovannini, Alberto, 1993. "The Determinants of Realignment Expectations Under the EMS - Some Empirical Regularities," CEPR Discussion Papers 790, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    13. Flood, Robert P & Garber, Peter M, 1984. "Gold Monetization and Gold Discipline," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 92(1), pages 90-107, February.
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    15. Andrew J. Filardo, 1993. "Business cycle phases and their transitional dynamics," Research Working Paper 93-14, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
    16. Michael W. Klein & Nancy P. Marion, 1994. "Explaining the Duration of Exchange-Rate Pegs," NBER Working Papers 4651, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Francesco Caramazza, 1993. "French-German Interest Rate Differentials and Time-Varying Realignment Risk," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 40(3), pages 567-583, September.
    18. Zhaohui Chen & Alberto Giovannini, 1993. "The Determinants of Realignment Expectations Under the EMS: Some Empirical Regularities," NBER Working Papers 4291, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    19. Ghysels, Eric, 1994. "On the Periodic Structure of the Business Cycle," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 12(3), pages 289-98, July.
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    21. Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad, 1997. "Understanding Devaluations in Latin America: A 'Bad Fundamentals' Approach," Center for International and Development Economics Research, Working Paper Series qt1h89j1pp, Center for International and Development Economics Research, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
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