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Latin America's experience with export subsidies


  • Nogues, Julio


Twenty years ago, it ws believed that export subsidies would produce more diversification and better export performance. This has not happened. In most cases, export subsidies were not supported by more open import policies - so subsidies reduced only marginally the anti-export bias of Latin American countries. Unstable real exchange rates have also hurt exports. Export subsidies appear to have improved exports in Brazil, which also liberalized imports, stabilized exchange rates, and promoted other policies conducive to export growth. Yet Mexico, after reducing import barriers, also enjoyed improved exports - with minimum export subsidies, and with apparently lower social costs than Brazil experienced. Export subsidies have failed in other Latin American countries - and particularly hurt development in Argentina, where fraud, corruption, and rent-seeking have been rampant. The author contends that the failure of export subsidies should remind us of the importance of distinguishing what is possible from what is likely. Finally, export subsidies compete with other government programs, and, considering their failure rate, the money might be better spent on infrastructure, health, and education projects.

Suggested Citation

  • Nogues, Julio, 1989. "Latin America's experience with export subsidies," Policy Research Working Paper Series 182, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:182

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Faini, Riccardo, 1994. "Export supply, capacity and relative prices," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 81-100, October.
    2. Grilli, Enzo R & Yang, Maw Cheng, 1988. "Primary Commodity Prices, Manufactured Goods Prices, and the Terms of Trade of Developing Countries: What the Long Run Shows," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 2(1), pages 1-47, January.
    3. Finger, J M & Hall, H Keith & Nelson, Douglas R, 1982. "The Political Economy of Administered Protection," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(3), pages 452-466, June.
    4. Laird, Sam & Nogues, Julio, 1988. "Trade policies and the debt crisis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 99, The World Bank.
    5. Baumann, Renato & Braga, Helson C., 1988. "Export financing in LDCs: The role of subsidies for export performance in Brazil," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 16(7), pages 821-833, July.
    6. Nogues, Julio J., 1983. "Alternative trade strategies and employment in the Argentine manufacturing sector," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 11(12), pages 1029-1042, December.
    7. Moran, Cristian, 1988. "A Structural Model for Developing Countries' Manufactured Exports," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 2(3), pages 321-340, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Keck, Alexander & Low, Patrick, 2004. "Special and differential treatment in the WTO: Why, when and how?," WTO Staff Working Papers ERSD-2004-03, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.
    2. Panagariya, Arvind, 2000. "Evaluating the case for export subsidies," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2276, The World Bank.


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