The investment decision : a re-examination of competing theories using panel data
In the United States, gross business fixed investments constitute about 10 percent of the Gross National Product (GNP). Such investments may represent GNP's most important component because: a) plant and equipment have a long-term effect on the economy's productive capacity, b) changes in investment spending directly affect employment levels and workers'incomes in durable goods industries, and c) supply and demand are sensitive to investment changes. Economists have long been concerned about what determines capital spending investments. Using data for US manufacturing firms for 1972-90, the author compares five investment theories: accelerator theory, cash flow theory, neoclassical theory, modified neoclassical theory and Q theory. If the results for cross-section regressions can be viewed as representing the long-term equilibrium, the single most important determinant of capital spending appears to be cash flow. Apparently, managers care more about cash flow and cost of capitalthan about stock market signals and the level of output. And at the firm level, managerial perceptions about fundamentals are more important that market perceptions. For managers, the stock market may be a side show to capital spending decisions. To generalize in a way useful for developing countries: firm level financial decisions are closely linked to real decisions in the economy. Internal finance is the most important use of funds so there is a close relationship between real and financial decisions.
|Date of creation:||30 Sep 1996|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433|
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Tobin, James, 1969. "A General Equilibrium Approach to Monetary Theory," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 1(1), pages 15-29, February.
- Takeo Hoshi & Anil Kashyap & David Scharfstein, 1991.
"Corporate Structure, Liquidity, and Investment: Evidence from Japanese Industrial Groups,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 106(1), pages 33-60.
- Takeo Hoshi & Anil K. Kashyap & David Scharfstein, 1989. "Corporate structure, liquidity, and investment: evidence from Japanese industrial groups," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 82, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Ben S. Bernanke & Henning Bohn & Peter C. Reiss, 1985.
"Alternative Nonnested Specification Tests of Time Series Investment Models,"
NBER Technical Working Papers
0049, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bernanke, Ben & Bohn, Henning & Reiss, Peter C., 1988. "Alternative non-nested specification tests of time-series investment models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 293-326, March.
- Lawrence H. Summers, 1981. "Taxation and Corporate Investment: A q-Theory Approach," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 12(1), pages 67-140.
- William C. Brainard & James Tobin, 1968. "Pitfalls in Financial Model-Building," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 244, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Bleaney, Michael & Greenaway, David, 1993. "Adjustment to external imbalance and investment slumps in developing countries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 577-585, April.
- Randall Morck & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1990. "The Stock Market and Investment: Is the Market a Sideshow?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 21(2), pages 157-216.
- J. A. Hausman, 1976.
"Specification Tests in Econometrics,"
185, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Benjamin M. Friedman & David I. Laibson, 1989. "Economic Implications of Extraordinary Movements in Stock Prices," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 20(2), pages 137-190.
- Jorgenson, Dale W, 1971. "Econometric Studies of Investment Behavior: A Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 1111-1147, December.
- Jaramillo, Fidel & Schiantarelli, Fabio & Weiss, Andrew, 1993. "The effect of financial liberalization on allocation of credit : panel data evidence for Ecuador," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1092, The World Bank.
- Rhee, C. & Rhee, W., 1991. "Fundamental Value and Investment: Micro Data Evidence," RCER Working Papers 282, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
- Steven M. Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & BRUCE C. PETERSEN, 1988.
"Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment,"
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity,
Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 19(1), pages 141-206.
- Eisner, Robert & Nadiri, M Ishaq, 1970. "Neoclassical Theory of Investment Behavior: A Comment," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 52(2), pages 216-222, May.
- Harris, John R & Schiantarelli, Fabio & Siregar, Miranda G, 1994. "The Effect of Financial Liberalization on the Capital Structure and Investment Decisions of Indonesian Manufacturing Establishments," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 8(1), pages 17-47, January.
- Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
- Grabowski, Henry G & Mueller, Dennis C, 1972. "Managerial and Stockholder Welfare Models of Firm Expenditures," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 54(1), pages 9-24, February.
- Samuel, Cherian, 1996. "Stock market and investment : the governance role of the market," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1578, The World Bank.
- R. Glenn Hubbard & Anil K Kashyap & Toni M. Whited, 1993. "Internal Finance and Firm Investment," NBER Working Papers 4392, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Siebert, Calvin D. & Jorgenson, Dale W., 1968. "Optimal Capital Accumulation and Corporate Investment Behavior," Scholarly Articles 3403057, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Dale Jorgenson, 1967. "The Theory of Investment Behavior," NBER Chapters, in: Determinants of Investment Behavior, pages 129-175 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Avinash K. Dixit & Robert S. Pindyck, 1994. "Investment under Uncertainty," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, number 5474.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1656. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.