IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Socioeconomic and ethnic determinants of grade repetition in Bolivia and Guatemala


  • Patrinos, Harry Anthony
  • Psacharopoulos, George


After reviewing the literature on repetition (students repeating grades in schools) in developing countries, the authors examine factors related to repetition in Bolivia and Guatemala. They develop a model to estimate the incidence and determinants of repetition. The use multivariate logistic regression analysis to estimate the determinants of repetition, using the results in simulations to determine probabilities of who is more likely to repeat. Their empirical analysis shows that certain populations are more likely to repeat a grade: children from less wealthy households and children of indigenous origins. This suggests that any targeting activities could be directed to the poor and could have an indigenous component, such as bilingual education.

Suggested Citation

  • Patrinos, Harry Anthony & Psacharopoulos, George, 1992. "Socioeconomic and ethnic determinants of grade repetition in Bolivia and Guatemala," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1028, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1028

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Behrman, Jere R & Deolalikar, Anil B, 1991. "School Repetition, Dropouts, and the Rates of Return to Schooling: The Case of Indonesia," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 53(4), pages 467-480, November.
    2. Psacharopoulos, George & Rojas, Carlos & Velez, Eduardo, 1992. "Achievement evaluation of Colombia's Escuela Nueva : is multigrade the answer?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 896, The World Bank.
    3. Gome-Neto, J.B. & Hanushek, E.A., 1991. "The Causes and Effects of Grade Repetition: Evidence from Brazil," RCER Working Papers 295, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
    4. Glewwe, P. & Jacoby, H., 1993. "Delayed Primary School Enrollment and Childhood Malnutrition in Ghana, an Economic Analysis," Papers 98, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Elizabeth M. King & Peter F. Orazem & Elizabeth M. Paterno, 2016. "Promotion with and without Learning: Effects on Student Enrollment and Dropout Behavior," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 30(3), pages 580-602.
    2. Marco Manacorda, 2012. "The Cost of Grade Retention," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 94(2), pages 596-606, May.
    3. -, 1995. "Educación, eficiencia y equidad," Copublicaciones, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), number 1762 edited by Cepal.
    4. Crouch, Luis A., 1996. "Public education equity and efficiency in South Africa: Lessons for other countries," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 125-137, April.
    5. Joan B. Anderson, 2000. "Factors affecting learning of Mexican primary school children," Estudios Económicos, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Económicos, vol. 15(1), pages 117-152.
    6. Godoy, Ricardo & Reyes-Garcia, Victoria & Seyfried, Craig & Huanca, Tomas & Leonard, William R. & McDade, Thomas & Tanner, Susan & Vadez, Vincent, 2007. "Language skills and earnings: Evidence from a pre-industrial economy in the Bolivian Amazon," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 349-360, June.
    7. Sunny, Bindu S. & Elze, Markus & Chihana, Menard & Gondwe, Levie & Crampin, Amelia C. & Munkhondya, Masoyaona & Kondowe, Scotch & Glynn, Judith R., 2017. "Failing to progress or progressing to fail? Age-for-grade heterogeneity and grade repetition in primary schools in Karonga district, northern Malawi," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 68-80.
    8. Santibañez, Lucrecia, 2016. "The indigenous achievement gap in Mexico: The role of teacher policy under intercultural bilingual education," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 63-75.
    9. Mete, Cem, 2004. "The inequality implications of highly selective promotion practices," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 301-314, June.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1028. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.