Socioeconomic and ethnic determinants of grade repetition in Bolivia and Guatemala
After reviewing the literature on repetition (students repeating grades in schools) in developing countries, the authors examine factors related to repetition in Bolivia and Guatemala. They develop a model to estimate the incidence and determinants of repetition. The use multivariate logistic regression analysis to estimate the determinants of repetition, using the results in simulations to determine probabilities of who is more likely to repeat. Their empirical analysis shows that certain populations are more likely to repeat a grade: children from less wealthy households and children of indigenous origins. This suggests that any targeting activities could be directed to the poor and could have an indigenous component, such as bilingual education.
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- Psacharopoulos, George & Rojas, Carlos & Velez, Eduardo, 1992. "Achievement evaluation of Colombia's Escuela Nueva : is multigrade the answer?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 896, The World Bank.