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How Long is the Long Run? Evidence from the Foreign Exchange Market

  • Kenneth W. Clements


    (Department of Economics, The University of Western Australia)

  • Yihui Lan


    (Department of Economics, The University of Western Australia)

The aim of this paper is to estimate the length of the long run in the foreign exchange market. We do this by examining the link between exchange rates and relative prices, based on the implications of purchasing power parity (PPP) theory. Using a new approach, we test if the ratios of variances of exchange rates to prices are unity over all horizons, as implied by PPP. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we derive the variance ratios under the null of equal variances and examine the power and size of the test. We find evidence that PPP holds in the long run. While the long run based on the consumer prices appears to be “long”, about five years, the estimate of the long run based on the single good, Big Macs, is shorter (two years).

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Paper provided by The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics in its series Economics Discussion / Working Papers with number 05-03.

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Length: 15 pages
Date of creation: 2005
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:uwa:wpaper:05-03
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  1. Cochrane, John H, 1988. "How Big Is the Random Walk in GNP?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(5), pages 893-920, October.
  2. Alan M. Taylor & Mark Taylor, 2004. "The Purchasing Power Parity Debate," Working Papers 46, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
  3. Robert E. Cumby, 1996. "Forecasting Exchange Rates and Relative Prices with the Hamburger Standard: Is What You Want What You Get With McParity?," NBER Working Papers 5675, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Meese, Richard A. & Rogoff, Kenneth, 1983. "Empirical exchange rate models of the seventies : Do they fit out of sample?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1-2), pages 3-24, February.
  5. Jeffrey A. Frankel and Andrew K. Rose., 1995. "A Survey of Empirical Research on Nominal Exchange Rates," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C95-051, University of California at Berkeley.
  6. Lothian, James R, 1985. "Equilibrium Relationships between Money and Other Economic Variables," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(4), pages 828-35, September.
  7. Ken Froot & Kenneth Rogoff, . "Perspectives on PPP and Long-Run Real Exchange Rates," Working Paper 32027, Harvard University OpenScholar.
  8. David C. Parsley & Shang-Jin Wei, 2003. "A Prism into the PPP Puzzles: The Micro-foundations of Big Mac Real Exchange Rates," NBER Working Papers 10074, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Dornbusch, Rudiger, 1976. "Expectations and Exchange Rate Dynamics," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(6), pages 1161-76, December.
  10. Manzur, Meher, 1990. "An international comparison of prices and exchange rates: a new test of purchasing power parity," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 75-91, March.
  11. Mussa, M.L., 1990. "Exchange Rates in Theory and in Reality," Princeton Studies in International Economics 179, International Economics Section, Departement of Economics Princeton University,.
  12. Meese, Richard, 1990. "Currency Fluctuations in the Post-Bretton Woods Era," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 4(1), pages 117-34, Winter.
  13. Mark P. Taylor & Lucio Sarno, 2004. "International real interest rate differentials, purchasing power parity and the behaviour of real exchange rates: the resolution of a conundrum," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 9(1), pages 15-23.
  14. Kenneth Rogoff, 1996. "The Purchasing Power Parity Puzzle," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 34(2), pages 647-668, June.
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