Direct and indirect subsidies in markets with system goods in the presence of externalities. Preliminary version
This paper derives a model of markets with system goods and two technological standards. An established standard incurs lower unit production costs but causes a negative externality. The paper derives the conditions for policy intervention and compares the effect of direct and indirect cost-reducing subsidies in two markets with system goods in the presence of externalities. If consumers are committed to the technology by purchasing one of the components, direct subsidies are preferable. For a medium-low cost difference between technological standards and a low externality cost it is optimal to provide a direct subsidy only to the first technology adopter. As the higher the externality cost raises, the more technology adopters should be provided with direct subsidies. This effect is robust in all extensions. In the absence of consumers commitment to a technological standard indirect and direct subsidies are both desirable. In this case, the subsidy to the first adopter is lower then the subsidy to the second adopter. Moreover, for the low cost difference between technological standards and low externality cost the fi rst fi rm chooses a superior standard without policy intervention. Finally, a perfect compatibility between components based on different technological standards enhances an advantage of indirect subsidies for medium-high externality cost and cost difference between technological standards. Journal of Economic Literature Classi fication Numbers: C72, D21, D40, H23, L13, L22, L51, O25, O33, O38. Keywords: Technological standards; complementary products; externalities; cost-reducing subsidies; compatibility.
|Date of creation:||2012|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Avda. de la Universitat,1 - 43204 Reus (Tarragona)|
Phone: 977 75 98 00
Fax: 977 75 98 10
Web page: http://www.urv.cat
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Church Jeffrey & Gandal Neil & Krause David, 2008.
"Indirect Network Effects and Adoption Externalities,"
Review of Network Economics,
De Gruyter, vol. 7(3), pages 1-22, September.
- Jeffrey Church & Neil Gandal & David Krause, 2003. "Indirect Network Effects and Adoption Externalities," Microeconomics 0301001, EconWPA.
- Church, Jeffrey & Gandal, Neil & Krause, David, 2003. "Indirect Network Effects and Adoption Externalities," CEPR Discussion Papers 3738, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Rennings, Klaus & Rexhäuser, Sascha, 2010. "Long-term impacts of environmental policy and eco-innovative activities of firms," ZEW Discussion Papers 10-074, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Farrell, Joseph & Saloner, Garth, 1986. "Installed Base and Compatibility: Innovation, Product Preannouncements, and Predation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 940-955, December.
- Stango Victor, 2004. "The Economics of Standards Wars," Review of Network Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 3(1), pages 1-19, March.
- Nicholas Economides, 1997.
"The Economics of Networks,"
Brazilian Electronic Journal of Economics,
Department of Economics, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, vol. 1(0), December.
- Economides, Nicholas, 1996. "The economics of networks," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 14(6), pages 673-699, October.
- Nicholas Economides, 1995. "The Economics of Networks," Working Papers 94-24, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics, revised Sep 1995.
- Nicholas Economides, 1997. "The Economics of Networks," Industrial Organization 9701002, EconWPA.
- Adam Copeland & Adam Hale Shapiro, 2010. "The impact of competition on technology adoption: an apples-to-PCs analysis," Staff Reports 462, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Adam Hale Shapiro & Adam Copeland, 2010. "The Impact of Competition on Technology Adoption: An Apples-to-PCs Analysis," 2010 Meeting Papers 181, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- Adam Copeland & Adam Hale Shapiro, 2010. "The Impact of Competition on Technology Adoption: An Apples-to-PCs Analysis," BEA Working Papers 0063, Bureau of Economic Analysis.
- Katz, Michael L & Shapiro, Carl, 1986. "Product Compatibility Choice in a Market with Technological Progress," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 38(0), pages 146-165, Suppl. No.
- Economides, Nicholas & Salop, Steven C, 1992. "Competition and Integration among Complements, and Network Market Structure," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(1), pages 105-123, March.
- Green, Jerry & Sheshinski, Eytan, 1976. "Direct versus Indirect Remedies for Externalities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(4), pages 797-808, August.
- Sheshinski, Eytan & Green, Jerry, 1976. "Direct Versus Indirect Remedies for Externalities," Scholarly Articles 3204666, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Montero, Juan-Pablo, 2002. "Permits, Standards, and Technology Innovation," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 23-44, July.
- Eftichios Sartzetakis & Panagiotis Tsigaris, 2005. "Environmental Externalities in the Presence of Network Effects: Adoption of Low Emission Technologies in the Automobile Market," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 28(3), pages 309-326, November.
- Katz, Michael L & Shapiro, Carl, 1986. "Technology Adoption in the Presence of Network Externalities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(4), pages 822-841, August.
- Katz, Michael L & Shapiro, Carl, 1992. "Product Introduction with Network Externalities," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(1), pages 55-83, March.
- Emmanuel Petrakis & Joanna Poyago-Theotoky,, "undated". "Environmental Impact of Technology Policy: R&D Subsidies Versus R&D Cooperation," Discussion Papers 97/16, University of Nottingham, School of Economics.
- Poyago-Theotoky, Joanna & Petrakis, Emmanuel, 1997. "Environmental impact of technology policy: R&D Subsidies versus R&D cooperation," UC3M Working papers. Economics 6072, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía.
- Clements, Matthew T., 2004. "Direct and indirect network effects: are they equivalent?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 22(5), pages 633-645, May.
- Regibeau, Pierre & Rockett, Katherine E., 1996. "The timing of product introduction and the credibility of compatibility decisions," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 14(6), pages 801-823, October.
- Eirik Gaard Kristiansen, 1998. "R&D in the Presence of Network Externalities: Timing and Compatibility," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 29(3), pages 531-547, Autumn.
- Economides, Nicholas & White, Lawrence J., 1994. "Networks and compatibility: Implications for antitrust," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(3-4), pages 651-662, April. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:urv:wpaper:2072/211631. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ariadna Casals)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.