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Innovation Capacity and Economic Development: China and India

  • Fan, Peilei
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    Both China and India, the emerging giants in Asia, have achieved significant economic development in recent years. China has enjoyed a high annual GDP growth rate of 10 per cent and India has achieved an annual GDP growth rate of 6 per cent since 1981. Decomposing China and India?s GDP growth from 1981 to 2004 into the three factors? contribution reveals that technology has contributed significantly to both countries? GDP growth, especially in the 1990s. R&D outputs (high-tech exports, service exports, and certified patents from USPTO) and inputs (R&D expenditure and human resources) further indicate that both countries have been very committed to R&D and their output is quite efficient. Both governments have played an essential role in transforming their national innovation systems so that they can be more adaptable to economic development. The main focus of their reforms has been to link the science sector with the business sector and to provide incentives for innovation activities. Balancing import of technology and indigenous R&D effort is another major theme. Innovation capability development has become more and more critical to the success of biofirms in India and China. Institutional factors have great influence on choice of innovation at the firm level, i.e., the decision at firm level in terms of indigenous R&D or import of technology. Nevertheless, limited financial resources and insufficiently qualified human resources remain two major challenges for domestic companies in both countries.

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    File URL: http://www.wider.unu.edu/stc/repec/pdfs/rp2008/rp2008-31.pdf
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    Paper provided by World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER) in its series Working Paper Series with number RP2008/31.

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    Length: 22 pages
    Date of creation: 2008
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:unu:wpaper:rp2008-31
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    1. Aggarwal, Aradhna, 2000. "Deregulation, technology imports and in-house R&D efforts: an analysis of the Indian experience," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(9), pages 1081-1093, December.
    2. Mahmood, Ishtiaq P. & Singh, Jasjit, 2003. "Technological dynamism in Asia," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1031-1054, June.
    3. Katrak, Homi, 1998. "Economic analyses of Industrial Research Institutes in developing countries: the Indian experience," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 337-347, August.
    4. Liu, Xielin & White, Steven, 2001. "Comparing innovation systems: a framework and application to China's transitional context," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(7), pages 1091-1114, August.
    5. Motohashi, Kazuyuki & Yun, Xiao, 2007. "China's innovation system reform and growing industry and science linkages," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 1251-1260, October.
    6. Young, Alwyn, 1995. "The Tyranny of Numbers: Confronting the Statistical Realities of the East Asian Growth Experience," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(3), pages 641-80, August.
    7. Katrak, Homi, 2002. "Does economic liberalisation endanger indigenous technological developments?: An analysis of the Indian experience," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 19-30, January.
    8. Lal, Deepak, 1995. "India and China: Contrasts in economic liberalization?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(9), pages 1475-1494, September.
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