Innovation Capacity and Economic Development: China and India
Both China and India, the emerging giants in Asia, have achieved significant economic development in recent years. China has enjoyed a high annual GDP growth rate of 10 per cent and India has achieved an annual GDP growth rate of 6 per cent since 1981. Decomposing China and India?s GDP growth from 1981 to 2004 into the three factors? contribution reveals that technology has contributed significantly to both countries? GDP growth, especially in the 1990s. R&D outputs (high-tech exports, service exports, and certified patents from USPTO) and inputs (R&D expenditure and human resources) further indicate that both countries have been very committed to R&D and their output is quite efficient. Both governments have played an essential role in transforming their national innovation systems so that they can be more adaptable to economic development. The main focus of their reforms has been to link the science sector with the business sector and to provide incentives for innovation activities. Balancing import of technology and indigenous R&D effort is another major theme. Innovation capability development has become more and more critical to the success of biofirms in India and China. Institutional factors have great influence on choice of innovation at the firm level, i.e., the decision at firm level in terms of indigenous R&D or import of technology. Nevertheless, limited financial resources and insufficiently qualified human resources remain two major challenges for domestic companies in both countries.
|Date of creation:||2008|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.wider.unu.edu/Email:
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Katrak, Homi, 1998. "Economic analyses of Industrial Research Institutes in developing countries: the Indian experience," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 337-347, August.
- Katrak, Homi, 2002. "Does economic liberalisation endanger indigenous technological developments?: An analysis of the Indian experience," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 19-30, January.
- Liu, Xielin & White, Steven, 2001. "Comparing innovation systems: a framework and application to China's transitional context," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(7), pages 1091-1114, August.
- Deepak Lal, 1993.
"India and China: Contrasts in Economic Liberalization,"
UCLA Economics Working Papers
706, UCLA Department of Economics.
- Lal, Deepak, 1995. "India and China: Contrasts in economic liberalization?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(9), pages 1475-1494, September.
- Mahmood, Ishtiaq P. & Singh, Jasjit, 2003. "Technological dynamism in Asia," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1031-1054, June.
- Young, Alwyn, 1995. "The Tyranny of Numbers: Confronting the Statistical Realities of the East Asian Growth Experience," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(3), pages 641-80, August.
- Motohashi, Kazuyuki & Yun, Xiao, 2007.
"China's innovation system reform and growing industry and science linkages,"
Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 1251-1260, October.
- Kazuyuki Motohashi & Xiao Yun, 2005. "China's Innovation System Reform and Growing Industry and Science Linkages," Discussion papers 05011, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
- Aggarwal, Aradhna, 2000. "Deregulation, technology imports and in-house R&D efforts: an analysis of the Indian experience," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(9), pages 1081-1093, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:unu:wpaper:rp2008-31. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Bruck Tadesse)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.