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Fair Housing Enforcement and Changes in Discrimination between 1989 and 2000: An Exploratory Study

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  • Stephen L. Ross

    (University of Connecticut)

  • George C. Galster

    (Wayne State University)

Abstract

Using paired testing data from the 1989 and 2000 Housing Discrimination Studies (HDS) and data on fair housing enforcement activities during the 1990s in the corresponding metro areas, we investigate whether 1989-2000 changes in the metropolitan incidence of racial/ethnic discrimination correlate with fair housing enforcement activity during the 1990s. We found that higher amounts of state and local enforcement activity supported by HUD through its FHIP and FHAP programs (especially the amount of dollars awarded by the courts) were consistently associated with greater declines in discrimination against black apartment-seekers and home-seekers. The evidence does not support similar conclusions for housing market discrimination against Hispanics where the level of enforcement is much lower.

Suggested Citation

  • Stephen L. Ross & George C. Galster, 2005. "Fair Housing Enforcement and Changes in Discrimination between 1989 and 2000: An Exploratory Study," Working papers 2005-16, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:uct:uconnp:2005-16
    Note: The ideas in this paper do not necessarily represent the views of our Universities, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, or any other agency of the Federal Government. The authors wish to thank the many people at the Department of Housing and Urban Development, the Urban Institute, FH Associates, Progressive Management Resources, and Abt Associates who helped make the 2000 Housing Discrimination Study a success. We also express gratitude to Fred Freiberg, Todd Richardson, and Cliff Schrupp for their invaluable assistance in obtaining fair housing enforcement data from various sources. Sarah Pratt provided helpful technical assistance regarding the TEAPOTS database. Jackie Cutsinger and Phyllis Seals at Wayne State University and Jason Cutsinger at Compuware Inc. supplied able research, production, and technical assistance.
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Katherine M. O'Regan & John M. Quigley, 1996. "Teenage Employment and the Spatial Isolation of Minority and Poverty Households," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 31(3), pages 692-702.
    2. Margery Austin Turner & Stephen L. Ross, 2003. "Discrimination in Metropolitan Housing Markets: Phase 3 - Native Americans," Working papers 2003-43, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
    3. Galster, George C., 1987. "Residential segregation and interracial economic disparities: A simultaneous-equations approach," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 22-44, January.
    4. James J. Heckman, 1998. "Detecting Discrimination," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(2), pages 101-116, Spring.
    5. Page Marianne, 1995. "Racial and Ethnic Discrimination in Urban Housing Markets: Evidence from a Recent Audit Study," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 183-206, September.
    6. David M. Cutler & Edward L. Glaeser, 1997. "Are Ghettos Good or Bad?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(3), pages 827-872.
    7. Ondrich, Jan & Ross, Stephen L. & Yinger, John, 2000. "How Common is Housing Discrimination? Improving on Traditional Measures," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 470-500, May.
    8. Jan Ondrich & Stephen Ross & John Yinger, 2003. "Now You See It, Now You Don't: Why Do Real Estate Agents Withhold Available Houses from Black Customers?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 854-873, November.
    9. George Galster, 1988. "Residential segregation in American cities: A contrary review," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 7(2), pages 93-112, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Stephen L. Ross, 2005. "The Continuing Practice and Impact of Discrimination," Working papers 2005-19, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics, revised Jul 2006.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Housing Discrimination; Fair Housing Enforcement; and Paired Testing;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • K42 - Law and Economics - - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior - - - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
    • L85 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Real Estate Services
    • R30 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location - - - General

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