IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ucn/wpaper/200403.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Motivation, expectations and the gender pay gap for UK graduates

Author

Listed:
  • Arnaud Chevalier

Abstract

Focussing on recent UK graduates, a wage gap of 12% is found. The unexplained component of the gap is small and a large fraction of the gap can be explained by subject choice, job characteristics, motivation and expectation variables. Motivation and expectations account for 44% of the explained gap, thus most studies over-estimate the unexplained component of the gender wage gap. Following stereotypes, women tend to be more altruistic and less career oriented than men, character traits that are less rewarded by employers. The principal component of the gender wage gap is expectations about childrearing. These conservative attitudes affect women’s wages even at an early stage of their career. Without a change in attitude, the gender wage gap is likely to remain.

Suggested Citation

  • Arnaud Chevalier, 2004. "Motivation, expectations and the gender pay gap for UK graduates," Working Papers 200403, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
  • Handle: RePEc:ucn:wpaper:200403
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10197/1310
    File Function: First version, 2004
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. McCalman, Phillip, 2001. "Reaping what you sow: an empirical analysis of international patent harmonization," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, pages 161-186.
    2. d'Aspremont, Claude & Jacquemin, Alexis, 1988. "Cooperative and Noncooperative R&D in Duopoly with Spillovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, pages 1133-1137.
    3. Deardorff, Alan V, 1992. "Welfare Effects of Global Patent Protection," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 59(233), pages 35-51, February.
    4. Neary, J Peter & Leahy, Dermot, 2000. "Strategic Trade and Industrial Policy towards Dynamic Oligopolies," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(463), pages 484-508, April.
    5. Gene M. Grossman & Edwin L.-C. Lai, 2004. "International Protection of Intellectual Property," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, pages 1635-1653.
    6. Neary, J Peter & O'Sullivan, Paul, 1999. " Beat 'Em or Join 'Em? Export Subsidies versus International Research Joint Ventures in Oligopolistic Markets," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, pages 577-596.
    7. Gene M. Grossman & Edwin L.-C. Lai, 2004. "International Protection of Intellectual Property," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, pages 1635-1653.
    8. Dixit, Avinash, 1980. "The Role of Investment in Entry-Deterrence," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 90(357), pages 95-106, March.
    9. d'Aspremont, Claude & Jacquemin, Alexis, 1988. "Cooperative and Noncooperative R&D in Duopoly with Spillovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, pages 1133-1137.
    10. McCalman, Phillip, 2001. "Reaping what you sow: an empirical analysis of international patent harmonization," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, pages 161-186.
    11. Olivier Cadot & Jaime de Melo & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2015. "The Protectionist Bias of Duty Drawbacks: Evidence from Mercosur," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Developing Countries in the World Economy, chapter 15, pages 359-380 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    12. Zigic, Kresimir, 1998. "Intellectual property rights violations and spillovers in North-South trade," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(9), pages 1779-1799, November.
    13. Maskus, Keith E. & Penubarti, Mohan, 1995. "How trade-related are intellectual property rights?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, pages 227-248.
    14. Vishwasrao, Sharmila, 1994. "Intellectual property rights and the mode of technology transfer," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, pages 381-402.
    15. Lai, Edwin L. -C., 1998. "International intellectual property rights protection and the rate of product innovation," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, pages 133-153.
    16. Glass, Amy Jocelyn & Saggi, Kamal, 2002. "Intellectual property rights and foreign direct investment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, pages 387-410.
    17. Keith Maskus, 2000. "Regulatory Standards in the WTO," Working Paper Series WP00-1, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
    18. R. Stephen Richardson & James D. Gaisford, 1996. "North-South Disputes over the Protection of Intellectual Property," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 29(s1), pages 376-381, April.
    19. Yang, Guifang & Maskus, Keith E., 2001. "Intellectual property rights, licensing, and innovation in an endogenous product-cycle model," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, pages 169-187.
    20. Javorcik, Beata, 1999. "Composition of Foreign Direct Investment and Protection of Intellectual Property Rights in Transition Economies," CEPR Discussion Papers 2228, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Redmond, Paul & McGuinness, Seamus, 2017. "The Gender Wage Gap in Europe: Job Preferences, Gender Convergence and Distributional Effects," IZA Discussion Papers 10933, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Alison L. Booth, 2006. "The Glass Ceiling in Europe: Why Are Women Doing Badly in the Labour Market?," CEPR Discussion Papers 542, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
    3. Maciej Bukowski & Grzegorz Koloch & Piotr Lewandowski & Anna Baranowska & Iga Magda & Arkadiusz Szydlowski & Jacek Bielinski & Magdalena Bober & Malgorzata Sarzalska & Julian Zawistowski, 2008. "Employment in Poland 2007. Security on a Flexible Labour Market," Books and Reports published by IBS, Instytut Badan Strukturalnych, number zwp2007 edited by Maciej Bukowski.
    4. Nils Braakmann, 2009. "The Role of Psychological Traits for the Gender Gap in Full-Time Employment and Wages: Evidence from Germany," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 162, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    5. Marija Andonova & Nikica Mojsoska-Blazevski, 2015. "Factors Influencing the Earnings Expectations among Macedonian Students: A Comparative Perspective with the EU Students," Croatian Economic Survey, The Institute of Economics, Zagreb, pages 71-110.
    6. Alan Manning & Joanna Swaffield, 2008. "The gender gap in early-career wage growth," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(530), pages 983-1024, July.
    7. Carlos Medina & Christian M. Posso & Jorge A.Tamayo & Emma Monsalve, 2012. "Dinámica de la Demanda Laboral en la Industria Manufacturera Colombiana 1993-2009: una Estimación Panel VAR," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 009372, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
    8. Cepeda Emiliani, Laura & Barón, Juan D., 2012. "Educational Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap for Recent College Graduates in Colombia," IZA Discussion Papers 6361, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    9. Iga Magda & Monika Potoczna, 2014. "Does flexible employment pay? European evidence on the wage perspectives of female workers," IBS Working Papers 3/2014, Instytut Badan Strukturalnych.
    10. Claudio Quintano & Rosalia Castellano & Antonella Rocca, 2010. "Male-female discrimination: an analysis of gender gap and its determinants," Statistica, Department of Statistics, University of Bologna, vol. 70(2), pages 171-190.
    11. Booth, Alison L., 2009. "Gender and competition," Labour Economics, Elsevier, pages 599-606.
    12. Nigel C. O’Leary & Peter J. Sloane, 2005. "The Return to a University Education in Great Britain," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 193(1), pages 75-89, July.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Gender wage gap; Attitude; Wages--College graduates--Great Britain; Wages--Sex differences--Great Britain; Wage differentials--Great Britain; Sex discrimination in employment;

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J70 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - General
    • J29 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Other
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ucn:wpaper:200403. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Nicolas Clifton). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/educdie.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.