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Adoption of e-commerce by individuals and digital divide: Evidence from Spain

Author

Listed:
  • Ángel Valarezo

    (Instituto Complutense de Análisis Económico (ICAE), Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM).)

  • Rafael López

    (Instituto Complutense de Análisis Económico (ICAE), Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM).)

  • Teodosio Pérez-Amaral

    (Instituto Complutense de Análisis Económico (ICAE), Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM).)

Abstract

E-commerce penetration rates are distant among those groups of individuals with the lowest and the highest levels of online shopping adoption. This is an indicator of digital divide, having negative effects in terms of untapped opportunities for people, companies and the whole economy. Key socioeconomic and demographic determinants of adoption of ecommerce are explored, analyzing a dataset of 174,776 observations for the period 2008-2017 in Spain. The empirical analysis is based on a standard neoclassical utility maximization framework. Linear probability model, logistic regression, and Heckman’s sample selection correction model have been used. The results suggest that e-commerce adoption is positively related with being male, having higher levels of education, income and digital skills, being Spanish, and being employed; while being female, older and belonging to a household of two or more members have negative effects. An interaction between digital skills and age has been introduced in the model, where high digital skills seem to have a positive influence, partly counteracting the lower odds for some age groups. Policy recommendations related to demand and supply measures are suggested to foster the adoption of e-commerce.

Suggested Citation

  • Ángel Valarezo & Rafael López & Teodosio Pérez-Amaral, 2019. "Adoption of e-commerce by individuals and digital divide: Evidence from Spain," Documentos de Trabajo del ICAE 2019-19, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Instituto Complutense de Análisis Económico.
  • Handle: RePEc:ucm:doicae:1919
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    File URL: https://eprints.ucm.es/55421/1/1919.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    2. Garín-Muñoz, Teresa & López, Rafael & Pérez-Amaral, Teodosio & Herguera, Iñigo & Valarezo, Angel, 2019. "Models for individual adoption of eCommerce, eBanking and eGovernment in Spain," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 100-111.
    3. Srinuan, Chalita & Bohlin, Erik, 2011. "Understanding the digital divide: A literature survey and ways forward," 22nd European Regional ITS Conference, Budapest 2011: Innovative ICT Applications - Emerging Regulatory, Economic and Policy Issues 52191, International Telecommunications Society (ITS).
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    9. Valarezo, Ángel & Pérez-Amaral, Teodosio & Garín-Muñoz, Teresa & Herguera García, Iñigo & López, Rafael, 2018. "Drivers and barriers to cross-border e-commerce: Evidence from Spanish individual behavior," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(6), pages 464-473.
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    Cited by:

    1. Pérez-Amaral, Teodosio & Valarezo, Angel & López, Rafael & Garín-Muñoz, Teresa & Herguera, Iñigo, 2020. "E-commerce by individuals in Spain using panel data 2008–2016," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(4).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    E-commerce; Digital divide; Linear probability model; Logistic regression; Heckman’s sample selection correction; Polychoric correlation; Digital skills; Time and regional dummies; Pool data; Utility maximization framework.;

    JEL classification:

    • C25 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions; Probabilities
    • D11 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Theory
    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes

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