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Foreign Direct Investment And Income Inequality In Southeast Asia: A Panel Unit Root And Panel Cointegration Analysis, 1990-2013

Listed author(s):
  • Hyungsun Chloe Cho
  • Miguel Ramirez

    ()

    (Department of Economics, Trinity College)

This paper examines the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and income distribution in the host country as measured by the Gini coefficient. After providing some background and reviewing the extant literature, it undertakes a panel unit root and cointegration analysis that tests whether FDI has a non-linear impact on income inequality in seven selected Southeast Asian countries over the period 1990 to 2013. The paper finds strong evidence for panel cointegration using the Pedroni Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP) tests; thus, it proceeds to utilize the group-mean fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) procedure to generate long-run estimates that are unbiased and consistent. The FMOLS estimator is also extremely accurate even in panels with very heterogeneous serial correlation dynamics, fixed effects, and endogenous regressors. The results confirm the hypothesis that FDI inflows tend to raise income inequality in the short run but reduce it in the long run. In this study, the Gini index starts decreasing after FDI inflows as a percentage of GDP reaches 0.56. The fact that the Gini coefficient reaches its maximum at a relatively low level of FDI inflows suggests that sample countries are endowed with substantial absorptive capacity. In other words, they will shift into the new technological paradigm quickly, thus supporting pro-globalization claims that, on balance, FDI is more beneficial than harmful.

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File URL: http://internet2.trincoll.edu/repec/WorkingPapers2015/WP15-05.pdf
File Function: First version, 2015
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Paper provided by Trinity College, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 1505.

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Length: 27 pages
Date of creation: Jun 2015
Handle: RePEc:tri:wpaper:1505
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Web page: http://www.trincoll.edu/Academics/MajorsAndMinors/Economics/Pages/default.aspx

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  1. Jorge Saba Arbache & Andy Dickerson & Francis Green, 2004. "Trade Liberalisation and Wages in Developing Countries," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(493), pages 73-96, February.
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  3. Wood, Adrian, 1997. "Openness and Wage Inequality in Developing Countries: The Latin American Challenge to East Asian Conventional Wisdom," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 11(1), pages 33-57, January.
  4. Paolo Figini & Holger Go¨rg, 2011. "Does Foreign Direct Investment Affect Wage Inequality? An Empirical Investigation," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(9), pages 1455-1475, September.
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  6. Helpman, Elhanan & Trajtenberg, Manuel, 1994. "A Time to Sow and a Time to Reap: Growth Based on General Purpose Technologies," CEPR Discussion Papers 1080, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Peter H. Lindert & Jeffrey G. Williamson, 2003. "Does Globalization Make the World More Unequal?," NBER Chapters,in: Globalization in Historical Perspective, pages 227-276 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. António Afonso & Ludger Schuknecht & Vito Tanzi, 2010. "Income distribution determinants and public spending efficiency," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 8(3), pages 367-389, September.
  9. Basu, Parantap & Guariglia, Alessandra, 2007. "Foreign Direct Investment, inequality, and growth," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 824-839, December.
  10. Chiara Franco & Elisa Gerussi, 2013. "Trade, foreign direct investments (FDI) and income inequality: Empirical evidence from transition countries," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(8), pages 1131-1160, December.
  11. Feenstra, Robert C. & Hanson, Gordon H., 1997. "Foreign direct investment and relative wages: Evidence from Mexico's maquiladoras," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3-4), pages 371-393, May.
  12. Beyer, Harald & Rojas, Patricio & Vergara, Rodrigo, 1999. "Trade liberalization and wage inequality," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 103-123, June.
  13. Miguel Ramirez, 2007. "A Panel Unit Root and Panel Cointegration Test of the Complementarity Hypothesis in the Mexican Case: 1960–2001," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 35(3), pages 343-356, September.
  14. Pedroni, Peter, 1999. " Critical Values for Cointegration Tests in Heterogeneous Panels with Multiple Regressors," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 653-670, Special I.
  15. Philippe Aghion & Peter Howitt, 1999. "On the Macroeconomic Effects of Major Technological Change," Nordic Journal of Political Economy, Nordic Journal of Political Economy, vol. 25, pages 15-32.
  16. Bhandari, Bornali, 2007. "Effect of Inward Foreign Direct Investment on Income Inequality in Transition Countries," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 22, pages 888-928.
  17. Changkyu Choi, 2006. "Does foreign direct investment affect domestic income inequality?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(12), pages 811-814.
  18. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
  19. Pissarides, Christopher A, 1997. "Learning by Trading and the Returns to Human Capital in Developing Countries," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 11(1), pages 17-32, January.
  20. David Barlow & Gianluca Grimalda & Elena Meschi, 2009. "Globalisation vs internal reforms as factors of inequality in transition economies," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(3), pages 265-287.
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