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Should It Be Curtains for Some of the IMF’s Lending Windows?


  • Graham Bird

    (University of Surrey)

  • Dane Rowlands

    (Carleton University)


Increasing attention is being paid to IMF governance, and the structure and size of the Fund’s lending operations. However, less interest has been shown in the array of lending windows through which the IMF makes resources available. There have nonetheless been clear trends over recent years in the extent to which the windows are used. What discussion has occurred has been largely qualitative. In this paper, and as far as the data allow, we adopt a quantitative approach and focus on the extent to which the economic circumstances in which countries sign extended and concessionary arrangements differ from those in which they sign conventional stand bys. On this basis, we claim that there is a strong case for discontinuing the EFF but for continuing the PRGF. The paper also discusses, more broadly, reforms to the structure of the IMF’s lending windows.

Suggested Citation

  • Graham Bird & Dane Rowlands, 2005. "Should It Be Curtains for Some of the IMF’s Lending Windows?," School of Economics Discussion Papers 0905, School of Economics, University of Surrey.
  • Handle: RePEc:sur:surrec:0905

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2004. "The Modern History of Exchange Rate Arrangements: A Reinterpretation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 119(1), pages 1-48.
    2. Conway, Patrick, 1994. "IMF lending programs: Participation and impact," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 365-391, December.
    3. Dell, Sidney, 1985. "The fifth credit tranche," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 245-249, February.
    4. Graham Bird, 2003. "Restructuring the IMF's Lending Facilities," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(2), pages 229-245, February.
    5. Knight, Malcolm & Santaella, Julio A., 1997. "Economic determinants of IMF financial arrangements," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(2), pages 405-436, December.
    6. Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck & Harr, Thomas & Tarp, Finn, 2006. "On US politics and IMF lending," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(7), pages 1843-1862, October.
    7. Barro, Robert J. & Lee, Jong-Wha, 2005. "IMF programs: Who is chosen and what are the effects?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(7), pages 1245-1269, October.
    8. Graham Bird & Dane Rowlands, 2001. "IMF lending: how is it affected by economic, political and institutional factors?," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(3), pages 243-270.
    9. Bird, Graham & Hussain, Mumtaz & Joyce, Joseph P., 2004. "Many happy returns? Recidivism and the IMF," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 231-251, March.
    10. Maynard, Geoffrey & Bird, Graham, 1975. "International monetary issues and the developing countries: a survey," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 3(9), pages 609-631, September.
    11. Graham Bird & Dane Rowlands, 2007. "The Analysis of Catalysis: IMF Programs and Private Capital Flows," School of Economics Discussion Papers 0107, School of Economics, University of Surrey.
    12. repec:hrv:faseco:34721963 is not listed on IDEAS
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    Cited by:

    1. ., 2016. "Introduction and overview: the purposes and operations of the IMF," Chapters,in: The International Monetary Fund, chapter 1, pages 1-18 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    2. Glen Biglaiser & Karl DeRouen, 2010. "The effects of IMF programs on U.S. foreign direct investment in the developing world," The Review of International Organizations, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 73-95, March.
    3. Bal Gündüz, Yasemin, 2016. "The Economic Impact of Short-term IMF Engagement in Low-Income Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 30-49.
    4. Yasemin Bal Gunduz, 2009. "Estimating Demand for IMF Financing by Low-Income Countries in Response to Shocks," IMF Working Papers 09/263, International Monetary Fund.

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    JEL classification:

    • F33 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions

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