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Economic Fluctuations in a Small Open Economy - Real versus Nominal Shocks

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This paper analyses the role of real and nominal shocks in explaining business cycles in a small open economy like that of Norway. In particular, we study the sources behind real exchange rate fluctuations since the collapse of the Bretton Woods agreement. Imposing long run restrictions implied by economic theory on a structural vector autoregression (VAR) model containing GDP, unemployment (or price), real wage and the real exchange rate, four structural shocks are identified; Velocity (or monetary), fiscal, productivity and labour supply shocks. The model is also augmented to allow for oil price shocks.The identified shocks and their impulse responses are consistent with an open economy (Keynesian) model of economic fluctuations, and highlights the exchange rate as a transmission mechanism in a small open and energy based economy. Especially, I have found a plausible sequence of shocks (productivity shocks in the 1970s, velocity shocks in the mid-1980s, productivity and labour supply shocks in the late 1980s, and velocity and fiscal shocks in the early 1990s), which help to explain the evolution of GDP, unemployment, price, real wage and the real exchange rate. The results are robust to alternative specifications of the model and are stable over the sample.

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  • Hilde C. Bjørnland, 1998. "Economic Fluctuations in a Small Open Economy - Real versus Nominal Shocks," Discussion Papers 215, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:ssb:dispap:215
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    Cited by:

    1. Mohsen Mehrara, 2006. "Analyzing Exchange Rate Misalignment in Iran Based on Structural VAR Approach," Iranian Economic Review, Economics faculty of Tehran university, vol. 11(1), pages 39-58, winter.
    2. Lanteri , Luis N., 2012. "Choques macroeconómicos al sector externo. Evidencia para la Argentina (1980-2011)/Macroeconomic Shocks to the External Sector. Evidence for Argentina (1980-2011)," Estudios de Economía Aplicada, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, vol. 30, pages 1061(24.)-1, Diciembre.
    3. Luis N. Lanteri, 2011. "Apertura económica y producto sectorial. Alguna evidencia para la economía Argentina," Economic Analysis Working Papers (2002-2010). Atlantic Review of Economics (2011-2016), Colexio de Economistas de A Coruña, Spain and Fundación Una Galicia Moderna, vol. 2, pages 1-1, December.
    4. Jaanus Raim, 2004. "The Alternative to the Existing System of the Concepts about Purchasing Power Parity Deviations . Derived from the Estonian Experience," Working Papers 115, Tallinn School of Economics and Business Administration, Tallinn University of Technology.
    5. Tatiana Cesaroni, 2013. "Economic integration and industrial sector fluctuations: evidence from Italy," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(2), pages 944-958.
    6. Mehrara, Mohsen & Oskoui, Kamran Niki, 2007. "The sources of macroeconomic fluctuations in oil exporting countries: A comparative study," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 365-379, May.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Real and nominal shocks; exchange rate fluctuations; purchasing power parity; dynamic restrictions; structural VAR;

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
    • E63 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy; Stabilization; Treasury Policy
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics

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