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Assessing shadow banking – non-bank financial intermediation in Europe


  • Laurent Grillet-Aubert
  • Jean-Baptiste Haquin
  • Clive Jackson
  • Neill Killeen
  • Christian Weistroffer


Owing to the disruptive events in the shadow banking system during the global financial crisis, policymakers and regulators have sought to strengthen the monitoring framework and to identify any remaining regulatory gaps. In accordance with its mandate, the European Systemic Risk Board (ESRB) has engaged in developing a monitoring framework to assess systemic risks in the European Union (EU) shadow banking sector. This assessment framework provides the basis for the EU Shadow Banking Monitor, which will be published each year by the ESRB. The framework also feeds into the ESRB’s Risk Dashboard, internal risk assessment processes and the formulation and implementation of related macro-prudential policies. The ESRB’s Joint Advisory Technical Committee (ATC)-Advisory Scientific Committee (ASC) Expert Group on Shadow Banking (JEGS) has accordingly engaged in: conducting a stocktake of relevant available data and related data gaps; defining criteria for risk mapping in line with the work of the Financial Stability Board (FSB) in this area; deriving indicators using this methodology for the purposes of the ESRB’s risk monitoring and assessment. Shadow banking can be broadly defined as credit intermediation performed outside the traditional banking system. This is consistent with the definition used at the global level by the FSB. Against this background, this paper describes the structure of the shadow banking system in Europe and discusses a range of methodological issues which must be considered when designing a monitoring framework. The paper applies both an “entity-based” approach and an “activity-based” approach when mapping the broad shadow banking system in the EU. In turn, the analysis focuses primarily on examining liquidity and maturity transformation, leverage, interconnectedness with the regular banking system and credit intermediation when assessing the structural vulnerabilities within the shadow banking system in Europe. This approach appears the most appropriate for the purpose of assessing shadow banking related risks within the EU financial system. On this basis, the paper complements the EU Shadow Banking Monitor by providing further methodological detail on the development of risk metrics. The paper presents the analysis underpinning the construction of risk metrics for the shadow banking system in Europe and highlights a number of areas where more granular data are required in order to monitor risks related to certain market activities and interconnectedness within the broader financial system. JEL Classification: G23, G18

Suggested Citation

  • Laurent Grillet-Aubert & Jean-Baptiste Haquin & Clive Jackson & Neill Killeen & Christian Weistroffer, 2016. "Assessing shadow banking – non-bank financial intermediation in Europe," ESRB Occasional Paper Series 10, European Systemic Risk Board.
  • Handle: RePEc:srk:srkops:201610

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Godfrey, Brian & Killeen, Neill & Moloney, Kitty, 2015. "Data Gaps and Shadow Banking:Profiling Special Purpose Vehicles’Activities in Ireland," Quarterly Bulletin Articles, Central Bank of Ireland, pages 48-60, July.
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    3. Górnicka, Lucyna A., 2016. "Banks and shadow banks: Competitors or complements?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 118-131.
    4. Patrick M McGuire & Kostas Tsatsaronis, 2008. "Estimating hedge fund leverage," BIS Working Papers 260, Bank for International Settlements.
    5. Raphael Schestag & Philipp Schuster & Marliese Uhrig-Homburg, 2016. "Measuring Liquidity in Bond Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 29(5), pages 1170-1219.
    6. Christophe Pérignon & David Thesmar & Guillaume Vuillemey, 2018. "Wholesale Funding Dry‐Ups," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 73(2), pages 575-617, April.
    7. Ms. Elena Loukoianova & Ms. Yevgeniya Korniyenko & Mr. Hyun S Shin & Artak Harutyunyan & Richard Walton & Hanan AbuShanab & Mr. Luca Errico, 2014. "Mapping the Shadow Banking System Through a Global Flow of Funds Analysis," IMF Working Papers 2014/010, International Monetary Fund.
    8. Markose, Sheri & Giansante, Simone & Shaghaghi, Ali Rais, 2012. "‘Too interconnected to fail’ financial network of US CDS market: Topological fragility and systemic risk," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 83(3), pages 627-646.
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    Cited by:

    1. A. Mantovi & G. Tagliavini, 2017. "Liquidity cognition and limits of arbitrage," Economics Department Working Papers 2017-EP01, Department of Economics, Parma University (Italy).
    2. Abad, Jorge & D’Errico, Marco & Killeen, Neill & Luz, Vera & Peltonen, Tuomas & Portes, Richard & Urbano, Teresa, 2022. "Mapping exposures of EU banks to the global shadow banking system," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 134(C).
    3. Giorgio Nuzzo, 2017. "A critical review of the statistics on the size and riskiness of the securitization market: evidence from Italy and other euro-area countries," IFC Bulletins chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Data needs and Statistics compilation for macroprudential analysis, volume 46, Bank for International Settlements.
    4. Martin Hodula, 2018. "Off the Radar: Exploring the Rise of Shadow Banking in the EU," Working Papers 2018/16, Czech National Bank.
    5. Abad, Jorge & D'Errico, Marco & Killeen, Neill & Luz, Vera & Peltonen, Tuomas & Portes, Richard & Urbano, Teresa, 2017. "Mapping the interconnectedness between EU banks and shadow banking entities," CEPR Discussion Papers 11919, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Mariya Rubakha & Lesia Tkachyk & Olena Hamkalo & Khrystyna Demkiv, 2019. "Integral Assessment of Banking Activity Effectiveness and Rating of Ukrainian and Bulgarian Banks," Economic Studies journal, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences - Economic Research Institute, issue 4, pages 70-96.
    7. Martin Hodula, 2019. "Monetary Policy and Shadow Banking: Trapped between a Rock and a Hard Place," Working Papers 2019/5, Czech National Bank.
    8. Ronald B. Davies & Neill Killeen, 2018. "The Effect of Tax Treaties on Market Based Finance: Evidence using Firm-Level Data," Working Papers 201818, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
    9. Foglia, Matteo & Angelini, Eliana, 2020. "From me to you: Measuring connectedness between Eurozone financial institutions," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 54(C).
    10. Samo Boh & Stefano Borgioli & Andra (Buca) Coman & Bogdan Chiriacescu & Anne Koban & Joao Veiga & Piotr Kusmierczyk & Mara Pirovano & Thomas Schepens, 2017. "European Macroprudential Database," IFC Bulletins chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Data needs and Statistics compilation for macroprudential analysis, volume 46, Bank for International Settlements.
    11. Hodula, Martin & Melecky, Ales & Machacek, Martin, 2020. "Off the radar: Factors behind the growth of shadow banking in Europe," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 44(3).

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    More about this item


    shadow banking; intermediation; systemic risk;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G23 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors
    • G18 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Government Policy and Regulation

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