Why Are Americans More Productive Than Canadians?
The objective of this paper is to document the evolution of the Canada-U.S. labour productivity gap and to offer an explanation of why Americans have been and continue to be, on average, more productive than Canadians. This focus on relative productivity levels is in contrast to the typical focus on the gap between productivity growth rates in Canada and the United States. The paper finds that Canada’s level of output per person employed was 81.0 per cent of the U.S. level in 2002. This was the lowest relative level since the late 1960s. The general conclusions on the size of the output per hour gap are that output per hour has always been below that in the United States, the productivity gap has increased in the 1990s, particularly since 1994, and the current gap is between 11 and 19 percentage points depending on the source of hours data used. Five main reasons are advanced for this, namely: the lower capital intensity of economic activity in Canada; an innovation gap in Canada relative to the United States; Canada’s relatively underdeveloped high-tech sector; less developed human capital in Canada in terms of proportionately fewer university graduates and scientists and engineers in research and development; and more limited economies of scale and scope in Canada.
|Date of creation:||Jun 2003|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 151 Slater Street, Suite 710, Ottawa, ON K1P 5H3|
Web page: http://www.csls.ca/
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:|| Web: http://www.csls.ca Email: |
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Osberg, Lars & Sharpe, Andrew, 2002. "An Index of Economic Well-Being for Selected OECD Countries," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 48(3), pages 291-316, September.
- Martin Neil Baily & Robert M. Solow, 2001. "International Productivity Comparisons Built from the Firm Level," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(3), pages 151-172, Summer.
- Dachraoui, Kais & Harchaoui, Tarek, 2003. "A Frontier Approach to Canada-U.S. Multifactor Productivity Performance," Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series 2003010e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
- Andrew Sharpe, 2002. "Productivity Concepts, Trends And Prospects: An Overview," The Review of Economic Performance and Social Progress, in: Andrew Sharpe, Executive Director & France St-Hilaire, Vice-President , Research & Keith Banting, Di (ed.), The Review of Economic Performance and Social Progress 2002: Towards a Social Understanding of Productivity, volume 2 Centre for the Study of Living Standards;The Institutute for Research on Public Policy.
- Tang, Jianmin & Baldwin, John R. & Jarmin , Ron S., 2002. "The Trend to Smaller Producers in Manufacturing: A Canada/U.S. Comparison," Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series 2002003e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
- Jeffrey I. Bernstein & Richard G. Harris & Andrew Sharpe, 2002. "The Widening Canada-US Productivity Gap in Manufaturing," International Productivity Monitor, Centre for the Study of Living Standards, vol. 5, pages 3-22, Fall.
- Someshwar Rao & Jianmin Tang & Weimin Wang, 2002. "The Importance of Skills for Innovation and Productivity," International Productivity Monitor, Centre for the Study of Living Standards, vol. 4, pages 15-26, Spring.
- W. Erwin Diewert, 2003. "Measuring Capital," NBER Working Papers 9526, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2000.
"Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle,"
Boston College Working Papers in Economics
485, Boston College Department of Economics.
- James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2003. "Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(1), pages 170-192, March.
- James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2001. "Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 8079, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lars Osberg & Andrew Sharpe, 2010. "The Index of Economic Well-Being," Challenge, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 53(4), pages 25-42, July.
- Jianmin Tang & Frank C. Lee, 2000. "Productivity Levels and International Competitiveness between Canadian and U.S. Industries," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 176-179, May.
- Robert E. Hall & Charles I. Jones, "undated".
"The Productivity of Nations,"
96012, Stanford University, Department of Economics.
- Someshwar Rao & Ashfaq Ahmad & William Horsman & Phaedra Kaptein-Russell, 2001. "The Importance of Innovation for Productivity," International Productivity Monitor, Centre for the Study of Living Standards, vol. 2, pages 11-18, Spring.
- Jeremy Smith, 2003. "International Productivity Comparisons: An Examination of Data Sources," International Productivity Monitor, Centre for the Study of Living Standards, vol. 6, pages 64-71, Spring.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sls:resrep:0303. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (CSLS)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.