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On the different geographic characteristics of Free Trade Agreements and Customs Unions

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  • Halis Murat Yildiz

    (Department of Economics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada)

  • James Lake

    (Department of Economics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX)

Abstract

A striking phenomenon emerges from casual observation of the geographical characteristics of Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs): while Customs Unions (CUs) are only intra-regional, Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) are both inter and intra?regional. A second striking phenomenon is that FTAs dramatically outnumber CUs. We present a farsighted dynamic model that endogenizes the choice of PTA type and rationalizes the first phenomenon via an FTA flexibility benefit: FTAs are more flexible than CUs because an FTA member is free to form further PTAs with non-members whereas a CU member must engage in further PTAs jointly with all existing members. Our model also suggests that greater distance between countries increases the prevalence of FTAs relative to CUs. Finally, the model relates geography and market size to the order of PTA formation

Suggested Citation

  • Halis Murat Yildiz & James Lake, 2015. "On the different geographic characteristics of Free Trade Agreements and Customs Unions," Working Papers 053, Ryerson University, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:rye:wpaper:wp053
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    Cited by:

    1. Lake, James & Nken, Moïse & Yildiz, Halis Murat, 2020. "Tariff bindings and the dynamic formation of Preferential Trade Agreements," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 122(C).
    2. Moise Nken & Halis Murat Yildiz, 2017. "Implications of multilateral tariff bindings on the formation of preferential trade agreements and quest for global free trade," Working Papers 068, Ryerson University, Department of Economics.
    3. James Lake, 2019. "Dynamic formation of preferential trade agreements: The role of flexibility," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 52(1), pages 132-177, February.
    4. Saggi, Kamal & Wong, Woan Foong & Yildiz, Halis Murat, 2017. "Preferential Trade Agreements and Rules of the Multilateral Trading System," MPRA Paper 76330, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Hinnerk Gnutzmann & Arevik Gnutzmann-Mkrtchyan, 2019. "The silent success of customs unions," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 52(1), pages 178-224, February.
    6. Jackson, Karen & Shepotylo, Oleksandr, 2018. "Post-Brexit trade survival: Looking beyond the European Union," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 317-328.
    7. Elie Appelbaum & Mark Melatos, 2018. "Are Customs Unions Really So Scarce?," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 94(307), pages 391-404, December.
    8. Facchini, Giovanni & Silva, Peri & Willmann, Gerald, 2017. "The political economy of preferential trade agreements: An empirical investigation," Kiel Working Papers 2096, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    9. Jacopo Timini & Francesca Viani, 2020. "A highway across the Atlantic? Trade and welfare effects of the EU-Mercosur agreement," Working Papers 2023, Banco de España.
    10. Nie, Fei & Li, Jian & Bi, Xiang, 2020. "Agricultural Trade Liberalization and Domestic Fertilizer Use: Evidence from a Natural Experiment in China," 2020 Annual Meeting, July 26-28, Kansas City, Missouri 304213, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    11. Gabriel Felbermayr & Feodora Teti & Erdal Yalcin & Gabriel J. Felbermayr, 2018. "On the Profitability of Trade Deflection and the Need for Rules of Origin," CESifo Working Paper Series 6929, CESifo.
    12. Brusselaers, Jan & Buysse, Jeroen, 2018. "Implementation of the EU-Cameroon Voluntary Partnership Agreement policy: Trade distortion, rent-seeking and anticipative behavior," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 167-179.
    13. Rebecca Freeman & Samuel Pienknagura, 2019. "Are all trade agreements equal? The role of distance in shaping the effect of economic integration agreements on trade flows," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 155(2), pages 257-285, May.
    14. Hinnerk Gnutzmann & Arevik Gnutzmann‐Mkrtchyan, 2019. "The silent success of customs unions," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 52(1), pages 178-224, February.
    15. Giovanni Facchini & Peri Silva & Gerald Willmann, 2015. "The Political Economy of Preferential Trade Arrangements: An Empirical Investigation," Discussion Papers 2015-16, University of Nottingham, GEP.
    16. Rodolfo G. Campos & Jacopo Timini, 2021. "Unequal trade, unequal gains: the heterogeneous impact of MERCOSUR," Working Papers 2114, Banco de España.
    17. Marie M. Stack & Martin Bliss, 2020. "EU economic integration agreements, Brexit and trade," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 156(3), pages 443-473, August.
    18. Felbermayr, Gabriel & Teti, Feodora & Yalcin, Erdal, 2019. "Rules of origin and the profitability of trade deflection," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 121(C).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Free Trade Agreement; Customs Union; flexibility; coordination; geography; networks; farsighted;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F12 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • C71 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory - - - Cooperative Games

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