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The Convergence of Welfare State Indicators in Europe: Evidence from Panel Data

  • Paetzold, Jörg


    (University of Salzburg)

This paper investigates whether there is a convergence in welfare state policies among the old EU member states. To identify such trends, we rely on pension and unemployment net replacement rates as well as on public social expenditures. Empirically, we use a sample of 14 economies (EU-15 excl. Lux.) between 1980 and 2005. The empirical findings reveal a presence of a convergence process, driven by strong catch-up of social protection levels in the Southern member states. Furthermore, convergence in replacement rates is substantially less pronounced than using spending data.

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Paper provided by University of Salzburg in its series Working Papers in Economics and Finance with number 2012-4.

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Length: 37 pages
Date of creation: 22 Mar 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ris:sbgwpe:2012_004
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  1. Castles, Francis G., 2004. "The Future of the Welfare State: Crisis Myths and Crisis Realities," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199273928.
  2. Hans-Werner Sinn, 2000. "EU Enlargement and the Future of the Welfare State," CESifo Working Paper Series 307, CESifo Group Munich.
  3. Kittel, Bernhard & Obinger, Herbert, 2002. "Political parties, institutions, and the dynamics of social expenditure in times of austerity," MPIfG Discussion Paper 02/1, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies.
  4. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
  5. Kittel, Bernhard & Winner, Hannes, 2002. "How reliable is pooled analysis in political economy? The globalization welfare state nexus revisited," MPIfG Discussion Paper 02/3, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies.
  6. Caminada, Koen & Goudswaard, Kees & Van Vliet, Olaf, 2008. "Patterns of welfare state indicators in the EU: Is there convergence?," MPRA Paper 20177, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Luisa Corrado & David A. Londo–o B. & Francesco S. Mennini & Giovanni Trovato, 2003. "The Welfare States in a United Europe," European Political Economy Review, European Political Economy Infrastructure Consortium, vol. 1(Spring), pages 40-55.
  8. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
  9. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521557962 is not listed on IDEAS
  10. Christopher F Baum, 2001. "Residual diagnostics for cross-section time series regression models," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 1(1), pages 101-104, November.
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