Openness, Specialisation and Vulnerability of the Nordic Countries
In this paper we analyse to what extent the Nordic economies are vulnerable to external shocks. Specifi cally, we assess the conventional wisdom that the Nordic countries are small open economies that are sig nificantly engaged in international trade, specialised in only few specific industries and, as a consequence, extremely dependent on the competiveness of their tradable sector and exposed to external shocks. To study this conventional wisdom, we employ a comprehensive set of indicators about trade openness, specialisation and vulnerability. While we do find that the Nordic countries are open economies, though not to an exceptional degree, we also find significant heterogeneity across these countries with respect to their vulnerability.
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