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Maquiladoras, Air Pollution, and Human Health in Ciudad Juarez and El Paso

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  • Blackman, Allen

    () (Resources for the Future)

  • Batz, Michael

    () (Resources for the Future)

  • Evans, David

Abstract

Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, is home to the U.S.–Mexico border’s largest maquiladora labor force, and also its worst air pollution. We marshal two types of evidence to examine the link between maquiladoras and air pollution in Ciudad Juárez, and in its sister city, El Paso, Texas. First, we use a publicly available sector-level emissions inventory for Ciudad Juárez to determine the importance of all industrial facilities (including maquiladoras) as a source of air pollution. Second, we use original plantlevel data from two sample maquiladoras to better understand the impacts of maquiladora air pollution on human health. We use a series of computational models to estimate health damages attributable to air pollution from these plants, we compare these damages to estimates of damages from non-maquiladora industrial polluters, and we use regression analysis to determine whether the poor suffer disproportionately from maquiladora air pollution. We find that air pollution from maquiladoras has serious consequences for human health, including respiratory disease and premature mortality. However, maquiladoras are clearly not the leading cause of air pollution in Ciudad Juárez and El Paso. Moreover, most maquiladoras are probably less important sources of dangerous air pollution than at least one notoriously polluting Mexican-owned industry. Finally, we find no evidence to suggest that maquiladora air pollution affects the poor disproportionately.

Suggested Citation

  • Blackman, Allen & Batz, Michael & Evans, David, 2003. "Maquiladoras, Air Pollution, and Human Health in Ciudad Juarez and El Paso," Discussion Papers dp-03-18, Resources For the Future.
  • Handle: RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-03-18
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    File URL: http://www.rff.org/RFF/documents/RFF-DP-03-18.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Blackman, Allen & Shih, Jhih-Shyang & Evans, David & Batz, Michael & Newbold, Stephen & Cook, Joseph, 2006. "The benefits and costs of informal sector pollution control: Mexican brick kilns," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(05), pages 603-627, October.
    2. Loehman, E. T. & Berg, S. V. & Arroyo, A. A. & Hedinger, R. A. & Schwartz, J. M. & Shaw, M. E. & Fahien, R. W. & De, V. H. & Fishe, R. P. & Rio, D. E., 1979. "Distributional analysis of regional benefits and cost of air quality control," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 222-243, September.
    3. Blackman, Allen & Bannister, Geoffrey, 1998. "Pollution Control in the Informal Sector: The Ciudad Juárez Brickmakers' Project," Discussion Papers dp-98-15, Resources For the Future.
    4. Lauraine G. Chestnut & Bart D. Ostro & Nuntavarn Vichit-Vadakan, 1997. "Transferability of Air Pollution Control Health Benefits Estimates from the United States to Developing Countries: Evidence from the Bangkok Study," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 79(5), pages 1630-1635.
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    Cited by:

    1. Lopamudra Chakraborti & Michael Margolis, 2017. "Do industries pollute more in poorer neighborhoods? Evidence from toxic releasing plants in Mexico," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 37(2), pages 853-870.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    maquiladora; air pollution; human health; environmental justice; U.S.-Mexico border; Ciudad Juárez; El Paso;

    JEL classification:

    • Q01 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General - - - Sustainable Development
    • Q25 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Water
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products

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