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Environmental Kuznets Curve for the Informal Sector of Turkey (1950-2009)

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  • Ceyhun Elgin

    (Bogazici University, Department of Economics, Istanbul, Turkey)

  • Oğuz Öztunalı

    (Bogazici University, Department of Economics, Istanbul, Turkey)

Abstract

In this study we investigate the empirical relationship between the size of the informal sector (as percentage of official GDP), carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions in Turkey by using annual data from 1950 to 2009 and conducting a time-series analysis using cointegration techniques. This analysis is crucial as pollution emissions may lead to unfavorable weather conditions and potentially cause environmental impacts that may adversely affect the global economy. The empirical analysis shows evidence towards the existence of an inverted-U relationship between relative informal sector size and envi- ronmental pollution indicators in the long-run. That is small and large sizes of the shadow economy are associated with little environmental pollution and medium levels of the size of the shadow economy are associated with higher levels of environmental pollution. Moreover, using multivariate cointegration techniques, we suggest and test an economic mechanism to account for this observation. This also helps us to prescribe various policy recommendations regarding pollution and energy use.

Suggested Citation

  • Ceyhun Elgin & Oğuz Öztunalı, 2014. "Environmental Kuznets Curve for the Informal Sector of Turkey (1950-2009)," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 61(4), pages 471-485, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:voj:journl:v:61:y:2014:i:4:p:471-485
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    Cited by:

    1. Basbay, Mustafa Metin & Elgin, Ceyhun & Torul, Orhan, 2016. "Energy consumption and the size of the informal economy," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 10, pages 1-28.
    2. Elgin, Ceyhun & Oztunali, Oguz, 2014. "Pollution and informal economy," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 333-349.
    3. Xu Dong & Yali Yang & Xiaomeng Zhao & Yingjie Feng & Chenguang Liu, 2021. "Environmental Regulation, Resource Misallocation and Industrial Total Factor Productivity: A Spatial Empirical Study Based on China’s Provincial Panel Data," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(4), pages 1-20, February.
    4. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Mahalik, Mantu Kumar & Shah, Syed Hasanat & Sato, João Ricardo, 2016. "Time-varying analysis of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth nexus: Statistical experience in next 11 countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 33-48.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Informal economy; Error correction model; Cointegration; Green- house gas; Turkish economy;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E26 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Informal Economy; Underground Economy
    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling

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