IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Hedging Effectiveness of Total Returns Swaps: Application to the Japanese Market


  • Yoshiki Kago
  • Charles Ward

    () (Department of Real Estate & Planning, University of Reading)


The development of the real estate swap market offers many opportunities for investors to adjust the exposure of their portfolios to real estate. A number of OTC transactions have been observed in markets around the world. In this paper we examine the Japanese commercial real estate market from the point of view of an investor holding a portfolio of properties seeking to reduce the portfolio exposure to the real estate market by swapping an index of real estate for LIBOR. This paper explores the practicalities of hedging portfolios comprising small numbers of individual properties against an appropriate index. We use the returns from 74 properties owned by Japanese Real Estate Investment Trusts over the period up to September 2007. The paper also discusses and applies the appropriate stochastic processes required to model real estate returns in this application and presents alternative ways of reporting hedging effectiveness. We find that the development of the derivative does provide the capacity for hedging market risk but that the effectiveness of the hedge varies considerably over time. We explore the factors that cause this variability.

Suggested Citation

  • Yoshiki Kago & Charles Ward, 2008. "Hedging Effectiveness of Total Returns Swaps: Application to the Japanese Market," Real Estate & Planning Working Papers rep-wp2008-05, Henley Business School, Reading University.
  • Handle: RePEc:rdg:repxwp:rep-wp2008-05

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Howard, Charles T. & D'Antonio, Louis J., 1984. "A Risk-Return Measure of Hedging Effectiveness," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 19(01), pages 101-112, March.
    2. Englund, Peter & Hwang, Min & Quigley, John M, 2002. "Hedging Housing Risk," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 24(1-2), pages 167-200, Jan.-Marc.
    3. Lawrence Benveniste & Dennis R. Capozza & Paul J. Seguin, 2001. "The Value of Liquidity," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 29(4), pages 633-660.
    4. Baillie, Richard T & Myers, Robert J, 1991. "Bivariate GARCH Estimation of the Optimal Commodity Futures Hedge," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 6(2), pages 109-124, April-Jun.
    5. Philippe Boveroux & Albert Minguet, 1999. "Selecting hedge ratio maximizing utility or adjusting portfolio's beta," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(5), pages 423-432.
    6. Kanak Patel & Ricardo Pereira, 2008. "Pricing Property Index Linked Swaps with Counterparty Default Risk," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 36(1), pages 5-21, January.
    7. Richard D. F. Harris & Jian Shen & Evarist Stoja, 2010. "The Limits to Minimum-Variance Hedging," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(5-6), pages 737-761.
    8. David Collett & Colin Lizieri & Charles Ward, 2003. "Timing and the Holding Periods of Institutional Real Estate," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 31(2), pages 205-222, June.
    9. Park, Tae H & Switzer, Lorne N, 1995. "Risk Management of Real Estate: The Case of Real Estate Swaps," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 11(3), pages 219-233, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:rdg:repxwp:rep-wp2008-05. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Marie Pearson). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.