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Driving forces of different productivity models


  • Halkos, George
  • Bampatsou, Christina


In the present study, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used for the period spanning from 1980 to 2012 and for a total of 32 countries which are classified into four groups, according to their level of development (Developing, BRICS, Developed, G7). DEA allows us to measure technical efficiency under constant (CRS) and variable (VRS) returns to scale and also the Malmquist index and its components (TECHCH, EFFCH, PECH, SECH). Furthermore, we develop an order-α approach for the determination of partial frontiers. An output oriented model is applied. Labor and capital are used as inputs while the GDP index is used as output. Subsequently, energy is incorporated in the model as an additional input variable and CO2 emissions as undesirable output. A comparison of productivity indices as derived from the analysis, allows us to highlight the different levels of productivity before and after the integration of energy and CO2 emissions as additional variables, for each group of countries and therefore their sustainability gaps.

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  • Halkos, George & Bampatsou, Christina, 2016. "Driving forces of different productivity models," MPRA Paper 75398, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:75398

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Halkos, George Emm. & Tzeremes, Nickolaos G., 2009. "Exploring the existence of Kuznets curve in countries' environmental efficiency using DEA window analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(7), pages 2168-2176, May.
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    3. Kortelainen, Mika, 2008. "Dynamic environmental performance analysis: A Malmquist index approach," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(4), pages 701-715, February.
    4. Halkos, George & Tsilika, Kyriaki, 2014. "Analyzing and visualizing the synergistic impact mechanisms of climate change related costs," MPRA Paper 55459, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Caves, Douglas W & Christensen, Laurits R & Diewert, W Erwin, 1982. "The Economic Theory of Index Numbers and the Measurement of Input, Output, and Productivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(6), pages 1393-1414, November.
    6. Wang, Ke & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2016. "Sources of energy productivity change in China during 1997–2012: A decomposition analysis based on the Luenberger productivity indicator," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 50-59.
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    8. Bădin, Luiza & Daraio, Cinzia & Simar, Léopold, 2012. "How to measure the impact of environmental factors in a nonparametric production model," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 223(3), pages 818-833.
    9. Fischer, Manfred M. & Scherngell, Thomas & Reismann, Martin, 2008. "Knowledge spillovers and total factor productivity. Evidence using a spatial panel data model," MPRA Paper 77762, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Long, Xingle & Zhao, Xicang & Cheng, Faxin, 2015. "The comparison analysis of total factor productivity and eco-efficiency in China's cement manufactures," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 61-66.
    11. Apergis, Nicholas & Aye, Goodness C. & Barros, Carlos Pestana & Gupta, Rangan & Wanke, Peter, 2015. "Energy efficiency of selected OECD countries: A slacks based model with undesirable outputs," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 45-53.
    12. Halkos, George, 2014. "The Economics of Climate Change Policy: Critical review and future policy directions," MPRA Paper 56841, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Halkos, George & Tsilika, Kyriaki, 2016. "Climate change impacts: Understanding the synergetic interactions using graph computing," MPRA Paper 75037, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Halkos, George & Polemis, Michael, 2016. "The good, the bad and the ugly? Balancing environmental and economic impacts towards efficiency," MPRA Paper 72132, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    Cited by:

    1. Halkos, George, 2017. "Global Energy and Sustainable Development: Introduction," MPRA Paper 81967, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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    More about this item


    Data Envelopment Analysis; Malmquist Index; Order-α approach; Energy; CO2 emissions.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O11 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • O57 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Comparative Studies of Countries
    • Q0 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General
    • Q01 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General - - - Sustainable Development
    • Q4 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy
    • Q5 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics
    • Q50 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - General
    • R15 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Econometric and Input-Output Models; Other Methods

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