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L'ECODEVELOPPEMENT dans le cadre du Partenariat Euro-Méditerranéen : cas du territoire littoral d'ALGERIE et du MAROC
[ECODEVELOPMENT in the light of Euro Mediterranean Partnership : Cases of coastal territories of ALGERIA and MOROCCO]

Author

Listed:
  • Khaoua, Nadji
  • Boumghar, Mohamed Yazid
  • Kerrouk, Mohamed Said

Abstract

This research, entitled “Eco-development in the light of the euro mediterranean partnership: application to the coastal territories of Algeria and Morocco” wants to focus on the economic and policy causes which conduct to move to the alternative of eco-development as a new growth policy for these southern countries, to preserve their natural resources and enhance a sustainable way for growth. Both Algeria and Morocco, despite their human, material and natural resources, have failed during the last years to attain significant results in their fight against underdevelopment and poverty. More than that, development policies applied by each of these countries are based on, in a major part, the exploitation of their coastal territories and natural resources, which are both limited. The growth level yearly attained during the last decade, have not been more than 3% to 3.5% for each of them, less than estimated growth level of 7%, considered by many researchers as necessary to stabilize poverty and satisfy job demands. The intensive exploitation of natural resources added to the growing pressures on coastal territories has conduct to the rise of environmental damages, which enhance the costs of growth. We can observe that claimed objectives to help these South Mediterranean countries to push growth level, fixed previously by the partnership agreements with E.U., are not in their way to be realized at the level where it have been announced. How can be thinked a global economic model, to enhance growth, preserve environment and coastal territories, in a renewed and more equitable partnership agreement with E.U.? Is it possible to clear such model, which tries to embrace all aspects of this problematic, which is not only economic, but also social, environmental and including also spatial planning? To analyze these aspects, common to the cited growth policy experiences, this work have been conducted simultaneously, in spite of different levels of intensity in research works, at three cities (Annaba, Algiers and Casablanca), and two countries, Algeria and Morocco. It is structured by three main parts: The first addresses a synthesis of major theoretical questions with participate to the comprehension of the “eco development”, as an alternative economic policy based on some chosen indicators like green G.D.P. and green saving supported by a new ecological fiscal policy. Our efforts have begun to deep analysis of these points, trying to find a way to adapt it to cases from coastal territories of Algeria and Morocco, without neglecting some important questions, in economic analysis, about the theoretical status of the concept of “territory”. At what level it can be adopted as concept by this economic and environmental analysis? The second part tries to present coastal territories of each country, underlining main characteristics, which demonstrate their weaknesses: 1, the concentration of the major part of population in each, as indicated by chosen data; 2, the concentration of economic activities, which is underlined by institutional and constructed data, and some indicators, like “regional G.D.P”. The third part is focusing on eco-development as an alternative way of growth for each of the two. It tries to underline, as results obtained by this research, some key elements to draw an alternative global model based on eco-development for the cases cited. The aim is not to focus on the global economic and environmental purpose, like for example climate change. More specifically, we try here to underline a socio-economic and environmental question, facing coastal territories of two neighbors’ South Mediterranean countries. The target is to demonstrate that current growth policies conducted, have not only failed to realize any significant economic change in these countries, but more than that, enhance environmental damages and natural resources loses, especially in the coastal territories, by intensifying exploitations of these weak territories. To attain a significant step of growth and most largely, development, it’s indicated to search a new alternative model for growth, based on conservation of natural resources and environment, especially in these fragile territories. Each of these countries have the possibility, taking into account the actual limits of the agreements signed with E.U., to try renewing mobilization of these agreements to turn their economic system to eco-development, in a renewed “Win - Win” strategy with E.U. Résumé Cette recherche a pour thème « L’Ecodéveloppement dans le cadre du Partenariat Euro-méditerranéen : Application au Littoral d’Algérie et du Maroc ». Elle s’appuie sur l’observation de la réalité économique et environnementale : d’une part les politiques économiques en cours ne réalisent que peu leurs objectifs proclamés de croissance et de développement. Depuis 2000, le taux de croissance économique pour chacun de ces pays, n’a pas dépassé les 3 à 3,5 %. Il n’atteint qu’incidemment 4 % certaines rares années exceptionnelles, alors que plusieurs chercheurs avancent un taux moyen de 7% par an sur une période d’au moins cinq années successives, pour espérer stabiliser la pauvreté et créer suffisamment d’emplois. Cependant, les impacts des échecs de la croissance ne sont pas seulement économiques. Ils sont aussi environnementaux, car les systèmes économiques en place, avec leurs crises et leurs limites et les spécificités propres à chaque pays, n’accordent qu’une faible attention à la préservation de l’environnement et des ressources naturelles. Les dommages environnementaux s’accumulent et se poursuivent, menaçant l’existence même d’une part de ces ressources, sous leurs diverses formes, comme en témoigne la situation de leurs territoires littoraux. De l’autre, ces politiques se sont insérées dans des accords de partenariat avec l’Union Européenne, depuis 2000 pour le Maroc et 2005 pour l’Algérie, sans que les retombées de leurs applications, en termes de croissance économique, ne se vérifient de manière significative, au contraire des objectifs attendus. Comment repenser une autre politique économique, impulsant la croissance interne en préservant l’environnement, dans le cadre d’accords de partenariat plus équitable avec l’U.E. ? Cette autre politique, alternative au modèle économique en cours, peut-elle être tracée dans ses grandes lignes macro-économiques, en vue d’orienter les systèmes économiques en place vers l’écodéveloppement ? Cette alternative doit selon nous, s’élargir aux aspects non strictement économiques (tels que les aspects liés à la localisation territoriale des concentrations urbaines et des activités économiques). Ces aspects relevant de l’intégration de la notion de « territoire » et de la définition d’une politique d’aménagement de ce dernier, surdéterminent les résultats de la croissance, en particulier en matière d’impacts environnementaux et des coûts qu’ils induisent. Ce rapport est le résultat d’une recherche multiple qui a nécessité plusieurs mois de travail, mobilisant différents chercheurs, bien qu’avec des intensités différentes en termes d’efforts. Cette mobilisation a eu lieu en trois sites (Annaba, Alger, Casablanca) et deux pays différents (Algérie et Maroc), nonobstant les difficultés de tous ordres auxquelles ce travail a dû faire face, et dont celles relevant des contacts avec diverses parties, et celles concernant les collectes de données, ne sont pas des moindres. Nous précisons en premier lieu le cadre théorique ainsi que les principales questions auxquelles nous essayons de trouver des réponses objectives. Nous présentons ensuite les territoires littoraux des deux pays, en adéquation avec le thème principal de ce travail. Cette présentation éclaire les champs de l’analyse sur l’opportunité d’un modèle d’écodéveloppement pour ces territoires, dans le cadre du partenariat qui lie ces pays avec l’Union Européenne. Nous tentons enfin de nous interroger sur les résultats économiques et sociaux de leurs accords respectifs avec l’Union Européenne, en vue de pouvoir souligner l’impulsion que produira un modèle d’écodéveloppement négocié jusqu’ici entre chacun de ces pays et l’U.E. Ce thème de recherche ne vise pas à soulever une problématique globale des dommages environnementaux qui touchent le monde dans son ensemble, comme le montre l’exemple du changement climatique et de ses effets. Il s’agit plus modestement de s’intéresser à une problématique spécifique de ces dommages, impactant les territoires littoraux de deux économies en développement partageant une frontière terrestre commune. Cette recherche, la première à notre connaissance sur ce thème appliqué aux territoires littoraux des pays Sud Méditerranéens, vise à montrer par une analyse économique et environnementale, la pertinence de l’opportunité économique, environnementale et sociale d’une alternative visant la transition vers l’écodéveloppement pour ces territoires vulnérables et les deux pays étudiés.

Suggested Citation

  • Khaoua, Nadji & Boumghar, Mohamed Yazid & Kerrouk, Mohamed Said, 2014. "L'ECODEVELOPPEMENT dans le cadre du Partenariat Euro-Méditerranéen : cas du territoire littoral d'ALGERIE et du MAROC [ECODEVELOPMENT in the light of Euro Mediterranean Partnership : Cases of coast," MPRA Paper 60128, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:60128
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Paunić, Alida, 2016. "Brazil, Preservation of Forest and Biodiversity," MPRA Paper 71462, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Algérie; Maroc; Territoire littoral; Croissance; Ecodéveloppement;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • Q3 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q5 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • Q57 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Ecological Economics
    • R1 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes
    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)

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