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Contraceptive supply and fertility outcomes: evidence from Ghana

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  • Jones, Kelly M.

Abstract

Total fertility rates in Sub-Saharan Africa are nearly double that of any other region in the world. Evidence is mixed on whether providing contraceptives has an impact on fertility. I exploit exogenous, intermittent reductions in contraceptive supply in Ghana, resulting from cuts in U.S. funding, to examine impacts on pregnancy, abortion, and births. Women are unable to fully compensate for the 22% supply reduction using traditional methods for preventing pregnancy, which increases by 10%. Only non-poor women offset these unwanted pregnancies with induced abortion. Using separate data, I find that poor women experience increases in realized fertility of 7-10%.

Suggested Citation

  • Jones, Kelly M., 2013. "Contraceptive supply and fertility outcomes: evidence from Ghana," MPRA Paper 55184, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:55184
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Elizabeth Oltmans Ananat & Jonathan Gruber & Phillip Levine, 2007. "Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 42(2).
    2. Cristian Pop-Eleches, 2010. "The Supply of Birth Control Methods, Education, and Fertility: Evidence from Romania," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 45(4), pages 971-997.
    3. Martha J. Bailey & Brad Hershbein & Amalia R. Miller, 2012. "The Opt-In Revolution? Contraception and the Gender Gap in Wages," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 4(3), pages 225-254, July.
    4. Jonathan Gruber & Phillip Levine & Douglas Staiger, 1999. "Abortion Legalization and Child Living Circumstances: Who is the "Marginal Child"?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(1), pages 263-291.
    5. Easterly, William & Williamson, Claudia R., 2011. "Rhetoric versus Reality: The Best and Worst of Aid Agency Practices," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(11), pages 1930-1949.
    6. Hoddinott, John & Kinsey, Bill, 2001. " Child Growth in the Time of Drought," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 63(4), pages 409-436, September.
    7. Melanie Guldi, 2008. "Fertility effects of abortion and birth control pill access for minors," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 45(4), pages 817-827, November.
    8. Johan Walt, 2009. "Dead aid: Why aid is not working and how there is a better way for Africa," The Review of Austrian Economics, Springer;Society for the Development of Austrian Economics, vol. 22(4), pages 431-432, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Grant Miller & Christine Valente, 2016. "Population Policy: Abortion and Modern Contraception Are Substitutes," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 53(4), pages 979-1009, August.
    2. Bloom, David E. & Luca, Dara Lee, 2016. "The Global Demography of Aging: Facts, Explanations, Future," IZA Discussion Papers 10163, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. J.M. Ian Salas, 2012. "Consequences of withdrawal : Free condoms and birth rates in the Philippines," UP School of Economics Discussion Papers 201220, University of the Philippines School of Economics.
    4. repec:eee:hapoch:v1_3 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    fertility; contraception; abortion; foreign aid; Africa;

    JEL classification:

    • F35 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Aid
    • I15 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health and Economic Development
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • O19 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations

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